The Divine Lamp

The unfolding of thy words gives light; it imparts understanding to the simple…Make thy face shine upon thy servant, and teach me thy statutes

St Thomas Aquinas’ Commentary On Psalm 22

Posted by Dim Bulb on March 23, 2010

The following post contains the Latin and English text of Aquinas’ commentary on Psalm 22 (21 in older bibles).  It is part of the Aquinas Translation Project at De Sales University and was translated by Stephen Loughlin.  The text is under copyright and appears here in accordance with the standards laid down by the copyright holder (see copyright notice at bottom of post).  You can find many more online resources for this year’s Palm Sunday Mass here.

Psalm 21

a. Deus Deus meus respice in me: quare me dereliquisti? longe a salute mea verba delictorum meorum. My God, my God, look upon me: why have you forsaken me? far from safety are the words of my transgressions.
b. Deus meus clamabo per diem, et non exaudies: et nocte, et non ad insipientiam mihi. My God, I shall cry out by day, and you will not listen: and by night, and it will not be considered as foolish on my part.
c. Tu autem in sancto habitas, laus Israel. You dwell, however, in the holy place, the praise of Israel.
d. In te speraverunt patres nostri: speraverunt, et liberasti eos. Ad te clamaverunt, et salvi facti sunt: in te speraverunt, et non sunt confusi. Our fathers have hoped in you; they have hoped and you have freed them. They have cried out to you, and they were saved. They have hoped in you, and they were not confused.
e. Ego autem sum vermis et non homo: opprobrium hominum, et abiectio plebis. Omnes videntes me deriserunt me: locuti sunt labiis, et moverunt caput. But I am a worm and not a man: the reproach of men, and an outcast of the people. All who see me have ridiculed me: they have spoken with their lips, and have moved their heads:
f. Speravit in Domino, eripiat eum: salvum faciat eum, quoniam vult eum. “He hoped in the Lord, let him deliver him: let him save him, since he pleases him.”
g. Quoniam tu es qui extraxisti me de ventre: spes mea ab uberibus matris meae, in te proiectus sum ex utero. For you are the one who brought me forth from the womb, my hope from the breasts of my mother; from the womb I was thrown upon you.
h. De ventre matris meae Deus meus es tu: ne discesseris a me. From my mother’s womb you are my God: do not forsake me.
i. Quoniam tribulatio proxima est, quoniam non est qui adiuvet. For the trial is close, and there is no one who will help me.
j. Circumdederunt me vituli multi: tauri pingues obsederunt me. Aperuerunt super me os suum, sicut leo rapiens et rugiens. Many calves have surrounded me: fat bulls have besieged me. They have opened their mouths against me, like a snatching and roaring lion.
k. Sicut aqua effusus sum, et dispersa sunt omnia ossa mea. Factum est cor meum tanquam caera liquescens in medio ventris mei. Like water I am poured out, and all my bones are scattered. My heart has become like wax melting in the midst of my bowels.
l. Aruit tanquam testa virtus mea, et lingua mea adhaesit faucibus meis: et in pulverem mortis deduxisti me. My strength has dried up like an earthen vessel, and my tongue cleaves to my jaws: and you have brought me down to the dust of death.
m. Quoniam circumdederunt me canes multi: concilium malignantium obsedit me. Foderunt manus meas, et pedes meos, dinumeraverunt omnia ossa mea. For many dogs have surrounded me: the counsel of the wicked has besieged me. They have pierced my hands and my feet, they have numbered all of my bones.
n. Ipsi vero consideraverunt, et inspexerunt me: diviserunt sibi vestimenta mea, et super vestem meam miserunt sortem. They looked at and examined me: they divided my clothes among them, and upon my garments they cast lots.
o. Tu autem Domine ne elongaveris auxilium tuum a me: ad defensionem meam conspice. But you, O Lord, do not withdraw your help from me: look towards my defense.
p. Erue a framea Deus animam meam, et de manu canis unicam meam. Rescue my soul, O Lord, from the spear, my only soul from the hand of the dog.
q. Salva me ex ore leonis, et a cornibus unicornium humilitatem meam. Save me from the lion’s mouth, and my lowliness from the unicorn’s horns.
r. Narrabo nomen tuum fratribus meis: in medio ecclesiae laudabo te. I will proclaim your name to my brothers: in the midst of the church I will praise you.
s. Qui timetis Dominum, laudate eum, universum semen Iacob glorificate eum. Timeat eum omne semen Israel. You who fear the Lord, praise him, all offspring of Jabob, glorify him. Let all the offspring of Israel fear him.
t. Quoniam non sprevit, neque despexit deprecationem pauperis. Nec avertit faciem suam a me: et cum clamarem ad eum, exaudivit me. For he has not spurned, nor despised the deprecation of the poor. Nor has he turned his face from me: and when I called upon him, he heard me.
u. Apud te laus mea in ecclesia magna: vota mea reddam in conspectu timentium eum. My praise is before you in the great church: I will repay my vows in the sight of those who fear him.
v. Edent pauperes et saturabuntur, et laudabunt Dominum qui requirunt eum: vivent corda eorum in saeculum saeculi. The poor shall eat and be filled, and they will praise the Lord who seek him: their hearts will live forever.
w. Reminiscentur, et convertentur ad Dominum universi fines terrae. Et adorabunt in conspectu eius universae familiae gentium. All the ends of the earth will remember and be converted to the Lord. And all the families of the nations will adore in his sight.
x. Quoniam Domini est regnum, et ipse dominabitur gentium. For the Lord is king, and he will rule over the nations.
y. Manducaverunt et adoraverunt omnes pingues terrae: in conspectu eius cadent omnes, qui descendunt in terram. All earthly gluttons have eaten and have adored: they all fall down in his presence, those who go down to the earth.
z. Et anima mea illi vivet: et semen meum serviet ipsi. And my soul shall live for him: and my offspring will serve him.
aa. Anuntiabitur Domino generatio ventura; et annunciabunt caeli iustitiam eius populo qui nascetur, quem fecit Dominus. There will be announced to the Lord a generation to come; and the heavens will announce his justice to a people who will arise, whom the Lord will make.
a. In praecedentibus prius videtur esse actum de tribulatione, quam sustinuit David a filio, et a Saule; hic autem in tertia decade agitur de persecutione quam passus est a toto populo, qui eum abiecit ad mandatum Saulis. In the preceding psalms, we saw an earlier act of tribulation which David endured from his son and from Saul; however here, in the third group of ten, the discussion is about the persecution which was suffered by all people, who threw him aside into Saul’s command.
Dividitur ergo Psalmus iste in tres partes. In prima narratur tribulatio. In secunda funditur oratio ad Deum pro liberatione. In teria ponitur gratiarum actio. Secunda incipit Psalmus 24. Ad te Domine levari. Tertia ibi, Afferte Domino. This psalm therefore is divided into three parts. A tribulation is set forth in the first part. In the second, a prayer is poured out to God for deliverance. The action of graces is discussed in the third. The second begins at Psalm 24, at, To you, O Lord, I have lifted up my soul, and the third, at Psalm 28, at, Bring to the Lord.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo exponit tribulationem. Secundo ostendit quomodo a Deo iuvatur in tribulatione, ibi, Dominus regnavit me. Concerning the first he does two things. First he explains the tribulation, and second he shows how he is helped by God in this tribulation, at Psalm 22, The Lord governs me.
Sicut supra dictum est, sicut in aliis prophetiis, ita hic agitur de aliquibus tunc praesentibus, inquantum erant figura Christi et quae ad ipsam prophetiam pertinebant. Et ideo quandoque ponuntur aliqua quae ad Christum pertinent, quae excedunt quasi virtutem historiarum. As was said above, just as in other prophecies, so too is it here a question of some present events at that time, insofar as they were a symbol of Christ and pertained to prophecy itself. And for that reason, matters are sometimes set forth which pertain to Christ, which surpass, as it were, the power of the narrative.
Et inter alia spiritualiter iste Psalmus agit de passione Christi. Et ideo hic est eius sensus literalis. Unde specialiter hunc Psalmum in passione dixit cum clamavit, Hely hely lamasabacthani: quod idem est quod Deus Deus meus, sicut Psalmus incipit. Et ideo licet figuraliter hic Psalmus dicatur de David, tamen specialiter ad literam refertur ad Christum. This very Psalm, among others, treats of the passion of Christ in a spiritual manner. And for this reason, this is its literal sense. Therefore, Jesus referred to this psalm particularly during his passion when he cried out “Eli, Eli, lema sabacthani”, that is, “My God, my God” as begins the psalm. Thus, although this psalm speaks figuratively about David, nevertheless it is especially referred to Christ in a literal sense.
Et in synodo Toletana quidam Theodorus Mopsuestenus, qui hunc ad literam de David exponebat, fuit damnatus, et propter hoc et propter alia multa; et ideo de Christo exponendus est. Sciendum est autem quod quandoque prius agitur de passione Christi prolixe: quorum iste Psalmus primus est. At the Synod of Toledo, a certain Theodorus Mopsuestenus, who was explaining this psalm literally with respect to David, was condemned, because of this approach, and for many other reasons; he ought to have explained it with respect to Christ. Let it be known this is treated of abundantly before the passion of Christ, of which this very Psalm is the first.
Alii enim brevius tangunt passionem Christi. Secundus est, Iudica Domine nocentes me. Tertius est, Exaudi Deus orationem meam, et ne despexeris deprecationem meam. Quartus, Salvum me fac Deus, quoniam intraverunt aquae. Quintus, Deus laudem meam ne tacueris. Other psalms touch briefly on the passion of Christ. The second of these is Psalm 34, Judge, O Lord, those who are harming me. The third is Psalm 54, Hear, O Lord, my prayer, and despise not my supplication. The fourth is Psalm 68, Make me safe, O God, for the waters threaten my life. And the fifth is Psalm 108, O God, whom I praise, be not silent
Et hoc propter quinque plagas Christi: vel propter quinque effusiones sanguinis. Et unus est modus procedendi in omnibus, quia incipiunt a gemitu, et terminantur in salutem populorum: quia ex passione facta est salus omnibus hominibus. And this on account of the five wounds of Christ: or because of the five outpourings of his blood. And there is one manner of proceeding in all of these, because they begin in lamentation, and end in the salvation of the people, since from the passion was accomplished the salvation of all men.
Titulus Hieronumi est Victori pro Cervo matutino. In nostra litera, Victori pro assumptione utiliter pro Cerva matutina. The title of this psalm, in Jerome’s version, is For the victor according to the stag of the morning. In our version, the title is For the victor, usefully for the assumption, according to the deer of the morning.
In hoc psalmo principaliter agitur de passione Christi. Secundo tangitur in eo de resurrectione: quia per eam datur intelligi passio, et passio ordinatur ad resurrectionem; sicut si dicam, Iste est manumissus, ostendit quod fuit servus. Ergo iste psalmus est David, idest Christi. Et est pro assumptione, idest resurrectione, et haec fuit matutina; unde, Pro serva, idest pro humana natura, vel pro servo matutino, idest Christo: Ps. 107. Exurgam diluculo. The discussion in this psalm is principally about Christ’s passion. It touches, secondarily, on the resurrection, because it is given that the passion is to be understood in it, and that the passion is ordered to the resurrection, just as if I were to say that “This slave is freed”, shows that he was a slave. Therefore, the psalm itself is of David, that is, of Christ. And it is for the assumption, that is, the resurrection, and this happened in the morning. Thus, for the female servant, that is, on behalf of human nature, or for the morning servant, that is Christ – Psalm 107: I will arise at dawn.
Hic autem titulus est quando David ibat profugus, et latebat in desertis sicut cervus. Unde supra dixit, Et posuit pedes meos tanquam cervorum. Unde pro ista tribulatione quae figurabat passionem Christi, intitulatur iste psalmus. The title here refers to the time when David was a fugitive, and was hiding in desert places like a stag. Thus, he previously said, And he set my feet as of a stag. Therefore, this psalm itself is entitled for the very tribulation which symbolized the passion of Christ.
Hoc modo tamen melius refertur ad Christum, ut per cervum intelligatur humana natura in Christo, quia cervus transit spineta sine laesione pedum, sic Christus transivit per istam vitam praesentem sine inquinatione. Nevertheless, this mode is referred better to Christ, so that by the stag is understood human nature in Christ, because the stag crosses a thicket of thorns without injury to its foot, just as Christ crossed through this present life without defilement.
Item cervus optime salit: sic Christus de fovea mortis ascendit ad gloriam resurrectionis. Et ideo cervus dicitur, et matutinus dicitur, quia tunc surrexit. Again, the stag leaps the best, just as Christ ascended from the pit of death to the glory of his resurrection. And for this reason, stag and of the morning are said, because he rose at that time.
Psalmus iste dividitur in tres partes. In prima ponitur conquaestio. In secunda narratio passionis, ibi, Ego autem sum vermis. In tertia ponitur liberationis petitio, ibi, Tu autem Domine ne elongaveris. The psalm is divided into three parts. A complaint is made in the first, the second sets forth the story of the passion, at, But I am a worm, and the third, a petition for freedom, at But you, O Lord, do not withdraw.
Circa primum tria facit. Primo ponitur conquaestio sive quaestio. Secundo ponitur expositio conquaestionis, ibi, Longe a salute. Tertio ponitur ratio conquaerendi, ibi, Tu autem in Sancto habitas. Concerning the first he does three things. First, he sets forth the complaint or question, second, the explanation of the complaint, at, Far from safety, and third, the reason for the complaint, at, You dwell, however, in the holy place.
Haec est translatio septuaginta. In Graeco autem, et in hebraeo non est, Respice in me; sic habetur sic, Deus Deus meus quare me dereliquisti, quia haec verba dixit Christus in cruce: sed, Respice, interpositum est. Ponitur ergo petitio cum dicit, Deus Deus meus. Repetitur autem bis Deus ad maiorem certitudinem: Gen 41. Quod autem secundo vidisti ad eandem rem pertinens, indicium est firmitatis. Respice in me, idest miserere mei: Ps. 42. Respice in me, et miserere mei, quia unicus etc. This is the Septuagint translation. However, in the Greek and Hebrew translations Look upon me is not present. Instead they have, My God, my God, why have you forsaken me, because Christ said these words from the cross: Look was inserted (afterwards). Therefore, the petition is set forth when he says My God, my God. “God” is repeated twice for greater certainty – Genesis 41: What you have seen twice pertains to the same thing, a strong sign. Look upon me, that is, have mercy on me – Psalm 25: Look upon me and have mercy, for I am alone etc.
Quare me dereliquisti. Haec fuerunt verba Christi in cruce. Ex his autem verbis Arius occasionem sumpsit erroris, scilicet quod in morte Christi separata est divinitas ab humanitate. Unde de hoc secundum eum conqueritur Dominus, dicens, Quare me dereliquisti. Why have you forsaken me. These words were said by Christ from the cross. Now, on account of these words, Arius took up an occasion for error, namely that in Christ’s death, his divinity was separated from his humanity. Therefore because of this, according to Arius, the Lord complained, saying Why have you forsaken me.
Sed hoc erroneum est. Est autem sciendum, quod aliquis dicitur derelictus a Deo quando non adest ei Deus, sicut videtur adesse quando protegit eum, et implet eius petitionem: Hier. 20. Dominus Deus mecum est tanquam bellator fortis: idcirco qui persequuntur me cadent et infirmi erunt. Et quia Christus non est liberatus a passione corporali cum esset in passione, secundum hoc dicitur ad horam dereliquisti, idest passioni expositus: Ro. 8. Proprio filio suo non pepercit etc. But this is erroneous. For it should be known that someone is said to be forsaken by God when God does not go to him, just as he appears to approach when he protects him, and fulfils his petition – Jeremiah 20: The Lord God is with me as a strong warrior: therefore those who persecute me will fall and be most low. And because Christ was not freed from corporeal suffering at the time of his passion, for this reason it is said that you forsook (him) at that hour, that is, exposed him to the passion – Romans 8: He did not spare his only son etc.
Item illa petitio, Pater si fieri potest transeat a me calix iste, ut dicitur Matt. 26 non videtur impleta, quia erat secundum carnem: Isa. 54. Ad punctum et in modico dereliqui te, idest passioni te exposui; Et in miserationibus magnis congregabo te, scilicet in resurrectione. Et ideo dicit, Quare me dereliquisti, idest passioni me exposuisti. Again, that petition, Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from me, as it is said at Matthew 26, does not seem fulfilled, because it was according to the flesh – Isaiah 54: I have forsaken you for a short time, that is, I have exposed you to the passion; and I will gather you together in great mercy, namely in the resurrection. And so he says, Why have you forsaken me, that is, exposed me to the passion.
Longe a salute mea verba delictorum meorum. Hic exponitur conquaestio sive quaestio. Et primo in generali. Secundo in speciali, ibi, Deus meus clamabo. Far from safety are the words of my transgressions. Here is explained the complaint or question, first in general, second in particular, at My God, I shall cry out.
Dicit ergo, Dereliquisti me. Et hoc, quia Longe sunt verba delictorum meorum a salute mea, mei veri hominis, inquantum habeo humanam naturam: Ps. 18. Longe est a peccatoribus salus. Therefore, he says, You have forsaken me. And this, because far are the words of my transgressions from my safety, from my true man, insofar as I have human nature – Psalm 118: Far from sinners is salvation.
Et haec verba, scilicet, Dereliquisti, et longe, et quare, non videntur esse hominis iusti sive iustitae, sed videntur esse, Verba delictorum meorum, scilicet hominis peccatoris, idest ostendunt me non esse iustum, sed peccatorem. Unde haec verba dixit Christus in person peccatoris, sive ecclesiae. These words, namely You have forsaken, far from, and why, do not seem to be of a just man or of justice, but seem to be, words of my transgressions, namely of human sin, that is, they show me not to be just, but a sinner. Therefore, Christ spoke these words in the person of a sinner, or of the Church.
Et haec est una de regulis supra in principio psalterii positis, quod ea quae pertinent ad membra, dicit Christus de se propter hoc, quia sunt sicut unum corpus mysticum Christus et ecclesia; et ideo loquuntur sicut una persona, et Christus transformat se in ecclesiam, et ecclesia in Christum: Ro. 12. Multi unum corpus sumus in Christo. And this is one of the rules posited above at the beginning of the psalter, that those things which pertain to its members, Christ says of himself, since the Church and Christ are as one mystical body; and for this reason, they are spoken of as one person, and Christ transforms himself into the Church, and the Church into Christ – Romans 12: We, being many, are one body in Christ.
In membris autem Christi, idest ecclesia, sunt delicta sive peccata. In capite vero, idest in Christo, nullum est delictum, sed similitudo delicti: Ro. 8. Misit Deus Filium suum in similitudinem carnis peccati, et de peccato damnavit peccatum: 2 Cor. 5. Eum qui peccatum non noverat, peccatum pro nobis fecit, ut nos efficeremur iustitia Dei in Christo. Now, among the members of Christ, that is, the Church, there are transgressions or sins. However, in the head, that is, in Christ, there is no transgression, but only the likeness of transgression – Romans 8: God sent his Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and of sin, has condemned sin (in the flesh); 2 Cor. 5: He who knew no sin, was made sin for us, so that we might accomplish God’s justice in Christ.
Christus autem imminente passione oravit, Pater si fieri potest etc. Sed haec verba Christi orantis possunt dupliciter exponi. Uno modo ut Christus ea protulerit quasi gerens infirmorum personam, qui sunt in ecclesia: quia futurum erat ut aliqua membra sua debilia quando immineret eis passio formidarent. However, when his passion was approaching, Christ prayed, Father, if it be possible, etc. But these words which Christ prayed can be explained in two ways. First, so that Christ, by these words, revealed one bearing, as it were, the person of infirmities, which are in the Church: for the sake of the future so that some members would fear their own weaknesses when passion threatened them.
Alio modo quod protulit hanc petitionem gerens officium carnis infirmae in Christo, quae naturaliter timet et fugit mortem. Quod petit ergo liberari, fuit verbum vel membrorum in quibus delictum invenitur, vel carnis Christi in qua est similitudo delicti sive peccati: et ideo dicit, Verba, quibus petit liberari, quae sunt, Delictorum meorum, idest fidelium, pro quorum delictis patior; vel sunt infirmae carnis quae habet similitudinem delicti: longe a salute corporali, quia calix, sive passio, non transit a me ut petii; quasi dicat, Non consequor salutem quam intendo, si petitio mea quam peto, exaudiretur. Pater transeat a me calix iste. Et ideo litera Hieronymi habet, Longe a salute mea verba gemitus mei. Second, this petition revealed in Christ one bearing the responsibility of weakened flesh which naturally fears and flees death. Since he seeks therefore to be freed, it becomes the statement either of the members in which transgression is found, or of the flesh of Christ in which there is a similitude to transgression or sin: and for this reason he says, Words, by which he seeks to be freed, which are, of my transgressions, that is of the faithful, for whose transgressions I suffer; or they are of the weakened flesh which has a similitude to transgression: far from bodily safety, since this cup, or passion, does not pass from me as I have requested; as if he were saying, “I do not attain the safety which I desire, if my petition was heard. Father, let this cup pass me by.” And for this reason, Jerome’s version has, Far from my safety are the words of my moaning.
Aliter exponit Augustinus in lib. de gratia novi testamenti: Haec verba quibus peto liberari a passione et conqueror quod sum derelictus passioni, sunt longe a salute mea quae secundum quod Deus debeo facere: Matt. 1. Ipse salvum faciet populum suum a peccatis eorum. Augustine explains this in a different way in his book Concerning the Graces of the New Testament: These words, by which I seek to be freed from passion and by which I complain that I am abandoned to passion, are far from my safety which, in accordance with God, I ought to achieve – Matthew. 1: He will make his people safe from their sins.
Et assignat rationem quare sit derelictus: est enim duplex salus, una corporalis, quae est communis hominibus et iumentis: Ps. 35. Homines et iumenta salvabis Domine. Alia spiritualis et aeterna; et haec est propria Christi: unde dicit, Mea, quia salvus novi testamenti est per Christum facta: Isa. 45. Israel salvatus est in Domino salute aeterna. And he assigns the reason why he is forsaken: Salvation is two-fold, the one of the body, which is common to men and beasts – Psalm 35: O Lord, you will save men and beasts. The other is spiritual and eternal; and this is proper to Christ: and so he says, My, since the salvation of the New Testament was accomplished through Christ – Isaiah 45: Israel was saved in the Lord in eternal safety.
Et haec differunt: quia prima quaerebatur in veteri testamento; secunda quaeritur in novo. Quare ergo derelictus est passibilis, quia ipse venit in novo testamento. Et haec verba quae hic dixit, Longe a salute mea, spirituali, quia sunt pro corporali salute. And these (two) differ because the first was sought in the Old Testament, while the second is sought in the New. Therefore, he is forsaken in his suffering, because it came in the New Testament. And these words which he says, Far from my spiritual safety, because they are on behalf of corporeal safety.
Longe. Christus loquitur in persona peccatorum, qui quandoque propter peccata derelinquuntur a Deo: unde dicit, Verba delictorum meorum, idest peccatorum sunt, Longe a salute, spirituali: quia haec est causa quare peccatores (non) salvantur, quia sunt peccatores: Io. 9. Peccatores Deus non audit. Vel secundum Augustinum loquitur, A me, quasi derelinquendo me, fecisti me longe a salute mea, idest corporali: et haec verba sunt delictorum meorum. Far from. Christ speaks in the person of sinners, who are forsaken by God whenever on account of their sins: and so he says, the words of my transgressions, that is, they are of sinners, far from safety, that is spiritual (safety). For this is the reason why sinners are not saved, because they are sinners – John 9: God does not hear sinners. Or, according to Augustine, from me, is spoken as if by having forsaken me, you have made me far from my safety, that is corporeal (safety): and these words are of my transgressions.
b. Haec in speciali prosequuntur. Per diem et noctem duo intelligere possumus. Uno modo ad literam diem et noctem temporalem: et sic clamare est clamare assidue; unde dicit, Non exaudies; quasi dicat, Quamvis assidue clamem, non sum tamen exauditus. These (words of complaint) are pursued in particular. We can understand “by day and by night” in two ways. First, literally, as temporal day and night. And so, to cry out is to cry out constantly. He thus says, You will not listen, as if he were saying, “Although I constantly cry out, I am not heard.”
Litera Hieronymi habet, Et nocte et non est silentium mihi, quasi non sileo die et nocte orare. Jerome’s version has, And by night, and it is not silence to me, as if to say, “I do not keep silent to pray by day and by night.”
Alio modo, ut per diem intelligatur prosperitas, et per noctem adversitas. Et secundum Augustinum verba quae pro salute corporali dicuntur, fiunt per diem pro prosperis, per noctem, ut tollatur adversitas. Second, that by “day” is understood “prosperity”, and by “night”, “adversity”. According to Augustine, words which are said on behalf of the safety of the body, are made by day on behalf of prosperity, and by night, so that adversity may be taken away.
Ergo Christus clamabat per diem, quando est in prosperitate, et non exauditur, quia petit ut non pereat: et per noctem, ut tollatur adversitas, et non tollitur. Therefore, Christ used to cry out by day, when he is in prosperity, and he is not heard because he prays that he not perish; and by night, that adversity be taken away, and it is not.
Sed contra dicitur de Christo quod Exauditus est etc. However, on the other hand, it is said concerning Christ that He was heard etc.
Et dicendum, quod oratio est actus rationis: unde omnis oratio Christi procedens ex rationis iudicio est exaudita. Secus est de oratione exprimente infirmitatem naturae passibilis et proprium motum membrorum, quia nec ipse voluit eam exaudiri – Io. 12. Nunc anima mea turbata est, et quid dicam, Pater etc. To this it may be said that prayer (or speech) is an act of reason: thus every prayer of Christ, proceeding from the judgment of reason, is heard. Otherwise, it concerns speech expressing the infirmity of passible nature and proper to the movement of its members, because he did not want it to be listened to – John 12: Now my soul is troubled. And what shall I say? Father, etc.
Et quare non est exauditus in prosperis et adversis, ostendit, Et non ad insipientiam mihi, quia haec petitio non pertinet ad salutem novi testamenti, quam ego intendo, quae est salus aeterna, sed pertinet ad salutem veteris testamenti. Ut ergo hanc sapientiam discas, scias quod salus temporalis non pertinet ad novum testamentum, sed ad vetus. Haec est sapientia quae stultitia est apud homines: 1 Corin. 4. Nos stulti propter Christum; 1 Cor. 1. Nonne Deus stultam fecit sapientiam huius mundi etc. And the reason he is not heard in prosperity and adversity, he declares, And it will not be considered as foolish on my part, because this petition does not pertain to the salvation of the New Testament, which I myself intend, and which is eternal salvation, but pertains to the salvation of the Old Testament. Therefore, so that you may learn this wisdom, know that temporal salvation does not pertain to the New, but to the Old Testament. This is the wisdom which is foolishness among men – 1 Cor. 4: We are fools for Christ; 1 Cor. 1: Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? etc.
c. Supra posita est quaestio Christi inquirentis causam passionis suae; hic autem ostendit quod huiusmodi quaestio est rationabilis, et rationabile est quod est derelictus. Et primo dicit hoc esse mirabile ex parte Dei. Secundo ostendit hoc experimento antiquo, ibi, In te speraverunt. Previously the question of Christ inquiring as to the cause of his passion was set forth. Here, however, he shows that a question of this kind is reasonable, and that it is reasonable that he was forsaken. And he first says this to be a wondrous deed on the part of God. Secondly, he shows this by earlier experience, at, In you they have hoped.
Hoc quod hic dicitur, dupliciter refertur ad praedicta, secundum tres expositiones. Una est, quia est longe a salute temporali, et sic facta est ista divisio. Unde illud est mirabile ex parte Dei propter duo. What he says here can be referred in two ways to the aforesaid, according to three interpretations. One is because he is far from temporal safety, and thus is fashioned this very division. Therefore, that is a wondrous deed on the part of God in two ways.
Primum est, cum Deus in sanctis habitet, et non defendat eos: Iudith 6. Si Dominus nobiscum est, cur haec mala omnia apprehenderunt nos? Ubi sunt mirabilia eius quae patres nostri narraverunt nobis? Et ideo dicit, Tu autem in sancto habitas: Hierem. 14. Tu in nobis es Domine, sed specialiter habitat in Christo. First, when God dwells in holiness, and does not defend them – Judith 6: If the Lord is with us, why do all these evils take hold of us? Where are his wonderful deeds about which our fathers told us? And for this reason, he says, You dwell, however, in the holy place – Jeremiah 14: You, O Lord, are in us, but he dwells especially in Christ.
Alia ratio est, quia quicquid boni habemus, totum est in laudem Dei. Et ideo si nobis est bene, melius a nobis laudatur Deus. Et ideo sequitur, Laus Israel: Hieram. 17. Sana me Domine, et sanabor, salvum me fac et salvus ero, quoniam laus mea tu es. Another reason is that whatever good we have, all of it is in the praise of God. And for this reason, if all is well with us, God is better praised by us. Thus follows, The praise of Israel – Jerome 17: Heal me, O Lord, and I will be healed, make me safe, and I will be safe, for you are my praise.
Secundum aliam expositionem, Quare me dereliquisti, ideo scilicet quia, Verba delictorum meorum sunt longe a salute mea, spiritualiter: sed ego clamo pro temporali, tu vero qui habitas in sancto, ut sit, Laus Israel, non exaudies, quia non exaudis quando quis non clamat pro spirituali salute. According to the second interpretation, Why have you abandoned me, for this reason, namely because the words of my transgressions are far from my safety, spiritually speaking: I cry out for temporal safety, but you who dwells in the holy place, (so that he says The praise of Israel) will not listen, because you do not hear when one does not cry out for spiritual safety.
Vel secundum tertiam expositionem, ut loquatur Christus in persona peccatoris; quasi dicat, Ideo es longe a salute mea, quia non habitas in peccatoribus; sed in sancto. Or, according to the third interpretation, so that Christ speaks in the person of the sinner, as if he were saying, For this reason are you far from my safety, because you do not dwell among sinners, but in the holy place.
d. Hic ponitur alia ratio quae sumitur ex antiqua consuetudine et experimento quo sancti patres liberabantur a tribulationibus invocantes Deum, sicut patet Ex. 14. quod liberati sunt de persecutione Aegyptiorum, de Susanna quae liberata est ab iniqua sententia senum, Dan. 13. Daniel liberatus de ore sive de lacu leonum, Dan. 15. At this point is determined the other reason which is taken from earlier custom and experience by which the holy fathers, invoking God, were liberated from their tribulations, as is clear from Exodus 14 where they are freed from the Egyptians’ persecution, from Daniel 13 where Susanna is freed from the wicked sentence of the elders, and Daniel 15 where Daniel is freed from the lion’s mouth.
Quomodo ergo sum derelictus a te, et non sum liberatus a passione. Duo ergo facit circa hoc. Primo facit mentionem de malo corporalis afflictionis. Secundo de malo confusionis. In the same manner, then, am I forsaken by you, and not liberated from my passion. Concerning this, he thus does two things. First, he makes mention of the evil of his corporeal affliction, and second, of the evil of his confusion.
Quantum ergo ad liberationem primi mali duo faciebant. Primo sperabant in eum; unde dicit, In te, non in mundo: Speraverunt patres nostri: Isa. 26. Sperasti in Domino in saeculis aeternis, in Domino Deo forti in perpetuum etc. Et liberasti eos, et iste est fructus spei, quia liberasti eos. With respect, therefore, to his liberation from the first evil, he did two things. First, he hoped in him; and so, he says In you, and not “In the world”, our fathers have hopedIsaiah 26: You have hoped in the Lord for evermore, in the Lord God mighty forever etc. And you have freed them, and this is the very fruit of hope, because you have freed them.
Secundo clamabant; unde dicit, Ad te clamaverunt, ex magna cordis affectione: Et salvi facti sunt: Ps. 119. Ad Dominum cum tribularer clamavi etc. Second, they cried out; and so, he says, They have cried out to you, from great affection of heart: And they were savedPsalm 119: In my trouble I cried out to the Lord etc.
Quantum ad secundum malum, scilicet confusionem, dicit, In te speraverunt, et non sunt confusi. Sed contra Dan. 13. Non est confusio confidentibus in te: Rom. 5. Spes non confunditur. With respect to the second evil, namely that of confusion, he says, They have hoped in you, and were not confused. But on the other hand, there is Daniel 13: There is no confusion in those who trust in you; Romans 5: Hope does not confuse.
Dicendum quod patres pertinebant ad vetus testamentum in quo temporalia dabantur: et ideo ut ostendat quod divina providentia temporalia etiam disponat, liberat eos etiam temporali liberatione. It must be said that the fathers belonged to the Old Testament in which temporal things were given: and for this reason, that it demonstrate divine providence giving out even temporal things, and freeing them with temporal liberation.
Sed Christus promittit et donat spiritualia; et ut ostendat contemnenda temporalia, et speranda aeterna, noluit temporalem liberationem secundum rationem, et tamen aliqui in novo testamento sunt temporalibus liberationibus liberati, et in veteri testamento aliqui sunt spiritualibus afflictionibus eruditi, ut ostendatur Deus auctor esse utriusque testamenti. But Christ promises and confers spiritual things; and, so that he might show temporal things ought to be despised and eternal things ought to be hoped for, he does not desire temporal liberation according to reason, although some in the New Testament are freed with temporal liberation, while others in the Old Testament are educated by spiritual afflictions, so that God might be shown to be the author of both Testaments.
e. Hic ponit passionem suam. Et primo proponit confusionem suam quam passus est. Secundo exponit eam, ibi, Omnes videntes me. Tertio causam eius assignat, ibi, Quoniam tu es. At this point, he sets forth his passion. And first, he relates the confusion which he suffered. Second, he explains it, at, All who see me. Third, he assigns its cause, at, For you are the one.
Prima pars dupliciter potest legi. Uno modo, ut primo proponat similitudinem confusionis, Secundo ut exponat opprobrium. The first part can be explained in two ways. First, so that he might put forth the likeness of confusion, and second, that he might relate the disgrace.
Dicit ergo, Illi sunt liberati, ego autem non sum liberatus a confusione; sed sic viliter conculcatus ac si essem vermis et non homo: Iob 25. Homo putredo, et filius hominis vermis: Thren. 3. Factus sum in derisum omni populo, canticum eorum tota die. Therefore, he says “They, but not I, have been freed from confusion; but so worthlessly crushed underfoot as if I were a worm and not a man” – Job 25: (How much less) man that is rottenness, and the son of man who is a worm; Lamentations 3: I am made a derision to all the people, their song all the day long.
Et quomodo exponit, Opprobrium hominum, et abiectio plebis: Matt. 25. Praetereuntes blasphemabant eum, Vah qui destruis templum. Et qui crucifixi erant convitiabantur et, Alios salvos fecit. Et Ioa. 19. Plectentes coronam de spinis etc. et ideo, Opprobrium factus sum hominum, in verbis eorum, ut dictum est, Et abiectio plebis, quia spreverunt eum, et quia abiecto eo petierunt Barabbam, Matt. 27. Thren. 3. Abiectionem posuisti me in medio populorum. And he explains in what manner he is the reproach of men, and an outcast of the people – Matt. 27: And they that passed by blasphemed him…Vah, you who would destroy the temple…And those who were crucified with him, reproached him…He saved others… And John 19: Weaving a crown of thorns etc., and for this reason, I have become the reproach of men, in their words, as was said, and an outcast of the people, because they condemned him, and sought Barabbas, having rejected him – Matt. 27; Lamentations 3: You have made me an outcast in the midst of the people.
Secundo modo ut pertineat ad Christi dignitatem: vermis enim non generatur ex coitu, sed ex terra solo calore solis caelestis. Ipse enim quasi tenerrimus ligni vermiculus, ut dicitur 2 Reg. 23. sic Christus ex virgine sola operatione Spiritus sancti: Ps. 84. Dominus dabit benignitatem, et terra nostra dabit fructum suum. Ideo dicit, Ego autem sum vermis et non homo, scilicet tantum, sed etiam Deus. Second, that it might pertain to the dignity of Christ. For a worm is not generated from coition, but from the soil alone by the heat of the sun. For as we shall have had the most tender little worm of the wood, as is said at 2 Kings 23, so too Christ was had from the virgin only by the workings of the Holy Spirit – Psalm 84: The Lord will give goodness, and our earth shall yield its fruit. For this reason, he says But I am a worm and not a man, namely as amounting to a worm, but also God.
Vel aliter secundum Augustinum. Per hominem intelligitur homo vetus, scilicet Adam, qui sic fuit homo quod non filius hominis. Per vermem intelligitur Christus, qui sic fuit homo quod filius hominis, idest virginis: ideo dicit, Sum vermis et non homo, scilicet gaudens temporalibus, sed filius hominis gaudens spiritualibus. Or it may be interpreted in another way according to Augustine. By “man” is understood the old man, namely Adam, who was as man, but not the son of man. By “worm” is understood Christ, who was as man, and the son of man, that is, of a virgin: for this reason, he says I am a worm and not a man, namely rejoicing in temporal matters, but son of man rejoicing in spiritual matters.
Abiectio plebis. Hic non mutatur. Consequenter ponit derisionem: et primo ostendit quomodo sit universalis; secundo ostendit quomodo sit multiplex. An outcast of the people. This is not changed. Subsequently, he sets down the derision. First, he shows how this is universal, and second, how manifold it is.
Quod sit universalis, ostendit cum dicit, Omnes videntes me deriserunt me: Hier. 20. Tota die omnes subsannabant mihi: quia populi et principes: et haec distributio, Omnes, pro toto populo intelligitur, scilicet malo. That it is universal he shows when he says, All who see me have ridiculed meJeremiah 20: Everyone mocked me the whole day: because of the people and the rulers: and this distribution, All, is understood for all the people, namely for (their) evil.
Quod illusio fuerit multiplex ostendit, quia verbis; unde dicit quia, Locuti sunt labiis: Matt. 27. Praetereuntes blasphemabant eum: Isa. 57. Super quem lusistis, et super quem dilatastis os, et eiecistis linguam: Sap. 2. Si verus filius Dei est, suscipiet illum. Item factis, Et moverunt caput: Matt. 27. Moventes capita sua, scilicet prae derisu, dicentes, alios slavos fecit etc. That the derision was manifold is shown because of their words; and so he says, They have spoken with their lipsMatthew 27: And they that passed by blasphemed him; Isaiah 57: Upon whom have you jested? Upon whom have you opened your mouth wide, and put out your tongue?; Wisdom 2: If the just one is the son of God, he will defend him. Again, having done (this), They moved their headsMatthew 27: Moving their heads, namely on account of derision, saying, ‘He saved others…’ etc.
f. Ostendit quae sint illa verba quae in eius confusionem loquebantur: quia primo improperabant sibi spem quam habebant de Deo; unde dicit, Speravit in Domino, eripiat eum: Matt. 27. Confidit in Deo, liberet eum si vult; quasi dicat, Si sperasset in Domino, liberasset eum, quia dictum est supra statim, Quia speraverunt in te patres nostri, et liberasti eos. Sed decipiuntur: quia non intelligitur de salute, sive de liberatione temporali. He discloses those words which they said for his confusion, because first they were taunting him with the hope which they had concerning God. Thus, he says, He hoped in God, let him save himMatthew 27: He trusts in God, he will deliver him if he wishes; as if to say “If he trusted in the Lord, he would free him”, because it was said immediately above, Since our fathers hoped in you, you freed them. But they are deceived since they do not understand salvation or temporal liberation.
Secundo improperant Christo, quod non sit Deo acceptus; unde dicit, Salvum faciat eum quoniam vult eum: Sap. 3. Filium Dei se nominat. Second, they taunted Christ (with the taunt) that he was not accepted by God. And so he says, Let him save him, since he pleases himWisdom 3: He calls himself son of God.
g. Consequenter ponitur causa confusionis; et circa hoc duo facit. Primo ponit causam. Secundo prorumpit in orationem, Ne discesseris. Consequently, the cause of his confusion is set forth, concerning which he does two things. First, he determines the cause, and second, he breaks out in prayer at, Do not forsake me.
Causa irrisionis consuevit esse stultitia. Unde temporales reputant bonos homines stultos, quia non confidunt de mundo: Ps. 13. Consilium inopis confudistis, quoniam Dominus spes eius est. The cause of mockery is usually foolishness. And so, temporal men consider the good to be foolish since the good do not trust in the world – Psalm 13: You confuse the counsel of the impious since the Lord is (the good man’s) hope.
In hac causa duo facit. Primo ponit divinum beneficium motivum ad sperandum. Secundo ipsam spem, ibi, Spes mea; quasi dicat, Derident me, quia spes mea est in te; et ideo dicit, Quoniam tu es qui extracisti me de ventre matris meae. With respect to this cause, he does two things. First, he determines the divine benefit moving one to hope, and second, the hope itself, at, My hope; it is as if he were saying, “They mock me since my hope is in you.” And for this reason he says, For you are the one who brought me forth from my mother’s womb.
Hic ponit primo quae pertinent ad caput. Quaecumque nascuntur naturaliter ex utero matris, virtute divina producuntur, et ipsa est omnium causa: Gal. 1. Qui me segregavit ex utero matris meae, et vocavit per gratiam suam. Sed singulariter dicit Christum abstractum ex utero matris, quia mirabiliter conceptus est, et sine semine natus servata matris integritate: hoc est beneficium, et ex hoc sequitur spes: et circa hoc tria ponit. Primo ipsam spem. Secundo eius perfectionem. Tertio eius rationem. At this point, he first determines what belongs to the head. Whatever things are naturally born from a mother’s womb, are produced by the divine power, which is itself the cause of everything – Galatians 1: He who removed me from my mother’s womb, and called me by his grace. But he speaks separately of Christ taken from his mother’s womb because he was conceived miraculously, and born without seed to a mother kept undefiled – this is a benefit (from God), and from this, hope follows. Concerning this, he determines three things. First, the hope itself, second, its perfection, and third, its nature.
Dicit ergo, Spes mea ad uberibus matris meae, idest tu es spes mea ex quo homo sum et suxi ubera matris meae: quia cum erat Verbum apud Deum, non conveniebat ei sperare: Ps. 78. Spes mea a iuventute mea. Therefore, he says, My hope from the breasts of my mother, that is “You are my hope through which I am a man and have suckled at the breasts of my mother”, because when the Word was with God, it was not appropriate to hope in him – Psalm 78: My hope from my youth.
Sed contra Christus ad instanti conceptionis habuit usum liberi arbitrii, ergo ex tunc speravit. But on the other hand, Christ, from the beginning of his conception, had the use of free choice. Therefore, from that point, he hoped.
Respondeo. Dicendum quod ubera, idest lac Verbo in eodem tempore praeparatum fuit, quo fuit conceptus: unde ubera ad ipsam conceptionem referuntur. I respond by saying that breasts, that is, the milk that was prepared for the Word at that time, was that by which he was conceived. And so, “breasts” are referred to the conception itself.
In te proiectus sum ex utero. Contra. Si postquam egressus est ex utero, proiectus est in Deum, ergo antequam exiret uterum, non fuit proiectus in Deum. From the womb I was thrown upon you. On the contrary. If, after having come forth from the womb, he was thrown upon God, therefore before he came forth from the womb, he was not thrown upon God.
Dicendum, quod ille proiicitur in alterum, qui non in se, sed ei innititur: 1. Pet. 5. Omnem solicitudinem vestram proiicientes in eum: unde, Proiectus sum ex utero, quia tibi soli innitor. Et sic describitur perfectio spei. It must be said, in response, that he is thrown upon another, not as such, but that he depends upon him – 1 Peter 5: Casting all your care upon him. And so, From the womb I was thrown upon you, because I depend solely upon you. And in this way, the perfection of hope is described.
h. Hic ponitur ratio spei; quasi dicat, In te speravi, quia te habui semper ut Deum: Ps. 27. In Deo speravit cor meum, et aduitus sum; et ideo dicit Tu es Deus meus de ventre matris meae, idest ex quo factus sum homo, quia ante non erat Dei filius homo. At this point, he sets down a reason for hope; as if he were saying, “In you I have hoped, because I have always cherished you as God” – Psalm 27: In God has my heart hoped, and I have been helped. And for this reason he says, You are my God from my mother’s womb, that is by whom I became a man, since before this I was not a man, but the son of God.
Sed si exponatur de membris Christi, proiectio sive extractio est de uno in aliud secundum carnem, Christus autem semper tendebat in Deum: sed loquitur de membris quae secundum carnem semper sunt in ventre carnali, scilicet concupiscentiis mundanis; sed per Deum ab huiusmodi concupiscentiis extrahuntur, et proiiciuntur in Deum: ut nihil nisi Deum sperent et quaerant. But if this passage is interpreted concerning the members of Christ, projection or extraction is from one to another according to the flesh, but Christ always tended to God: however, it speaks of the members which, according to the flesh, are always in the carnal womb, namely in worldly concupiscence; but by God, they are extracted from any sort of concupiscence, and are thrown upon him, so that they hope in and seek after nothing except God.
Consequenter concludit orationem cum dicit, Ne discesseris a me, scilicet defendendo, vel in membris meis quantum ad spiritualia; quasi dicat, Dereliquisti me, exponendo passioni corporali. Ne recedas a me, fovendo me spirituali auxilio. Consequently he concludes his prayer when he says Do not forsake me, namely by protecting, or in my members so far as concerns spiritual matters; as if he were saying, Forsake me, by exposing me to corporeal suffering. Do not depart from me, by supporting me with spiritual help.
i. Hoc secundum Hieronymum est principium versus sequentis: et ideo potest, ut dictum est, convenienter cum praecedentibus legi: et etiam cum sequentibus. This, according to Jerome, is the first verse of the following (material): and for this reason it can be fittingly read, as was said, with what went before: and even with the following.
Et ut dicit Hieronumus, convenientius legitur cum sequentibus: nam psalmus ex persona Domini exponens passionem, praemittit primo orationem; postea ordinem passionis subsequitur, ibi, Circumdederunt me etc. Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit orationem. Secundo necessitatem orandi ostendit, Quoniam tribulatio. As Jerome says, it is more fittingly read with the following (material): for the psalm interpreting the passion from the person of Christ, first sends forth a prayer, after which follows the order of the passion, at Many calves have surrounded me etc. Concerning the first he does two things. First he relates the prayer, and second, shows the necessity of praying at, For the trial is close.
Dicit ergo, Tu es Deus meus de ventre matris meae, et ideo oro, ne discesseris a me, quoniam tribulatio proxima est. Haec enim intelligenda sunt ut Christus loquatur in persona membrorum suorum, ut non derelinqueret ea in tribulationibus: 1 Cor. 10. Fidelis Deus qui non patietur vos tentari supra id, quod potestis: Ps. 70. Ne derelinquas me, quia dixerunt inimici mei mihi, et qui custodiebant animam meam, consilium fecerunt in unum. Therefore he says, You are my God from my mother’s womb, and for that reason I pray, do not forsake me, for the trial is very near. These words are to be understood as Christ speaks in the person of his members, so that he would not forsake them in tribulations – 1 Cor. 10: And God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able; Psalm 70: Do not forsake me, for my enemies have spoken against me, and they that watched my soul, have taken counsel together.
Non autem dicit pro se. Necessitas autem est duplex; tribulatio quae imminet, et auxilium quod deficit; unde dicit, Tribulatio proxima est, scilicet tempore: Matt. 26. Ecce appropinquabit hora, et filius hominis tradetur etc. However, he does not say this for himself. The necessity is twofold; the trial which threatens, and the help which falls short; thus, he says The trial is close, namely, in time – Matthew 26: Behold, the hour is at hand, and the son of man shall be betrayed etc.
Sed obiicitur quod cum haec verba sint Christi iam in cruce existentis, quomodo tribulatio proxima est etc. Possumus dicere quod David mutat tempora. However, it is objected that since these are Christ’s words when he was actually on the cross, in what sense is the trial close? We can say that David changes times.
Augustinus aliter solvit. Tribulatio quandoque est propinqua, quandoque remota. Sensus doloris est in anima: propinquum animae est corpus, remota sunt bona exteriora. Quando ergo est afflictio in exterioribus, tribulatio non est propinqua; sed quando est in proprio corpore, tunc est propinqua et proxima: et impossibile est quin homo sentiat. Christus autem in proprio corpore affligebatur: Ps. 114: Tribulationem et dororem inveni. Item deficit auxilium, Quoniam non est qui adiuvet. Et ideo est orationi instandum: Isa. 63. Circumspexi, et non erat auxiliator, quaesivi, et non erat qui adiuvaret: quia etiam apostoli relicto eo fugerunt. Augustine solves this objection in a different way. Sometimes a trial is close, and at other times is it remote. The feeling of pain is in the soul: the body is close to the soul, exterior goods are remote. Therefore, when there is affliction in exterior things, trial is not close. But when there is affliction in the body proper, then it is near and close: and it is impossible for a man who does not feel. Christ however, was afflicted in his very body – Psalm 114: I met with trial and pain. Again help falls short, For there is no one who will help me. And for this reason it was fitting that prayer be pursued – Isaiah 63: I looked about, and there was no one to help; I sought, and there was none to give aid: since even the apostles fled, having abandoned him.
j. Supra ostendit Psalmista in persona Christi suam conquaestionem sive quaerelam rationabilem esse, et ex parte Dei, et ex antiquorum consuetudine, sive experimento; hic autem prosequitur ordinem passionis quantum ad afflictionem carnis. Et proponit primo persecutores. Secundo persecutionis effectum, ibi, Sicut aqua. Tertio persecutionis modum, ibi, Circumdederunt me canes. Previously, the Psalmist, in the person of Christ, shows his complaint or quarrel to be reasonable, both on the part of God and of earlier custom or experience. However, here he pursues the order of the passion as to the affliction of the body. And he first determines the persecutors, second, the effect of the persecution, at, Like water, and third, the mode of persecution, at Dogs have surrounded me.
Primo ergo introducuntur persecutores invadentes opere: quorum quidam minores, ut plebs et ministri; et quantum ad hoc dicit, Circumdederunt me vituli multi: Eccl. 1. Stultorum infinitus est numerus. Circumdederunt me, quia undique invaserunt: Ps. 117. Circumdederunt me sicut apes etc. Thus, first are introduced his persecutors attacking his work. Some are young, such as the common people and servants; and with regard to this he states, Many calves have surrounded meEcclesiastes 1: The number of fools is infinite. They have surrounded me, because they attack from all sides – Psalm 117: Like bees they have surrounded me.
Quidam sunt mairores; unde dicit, Tauri pingues obsederunt me: Eccl. 6. Ne extollas te in cogitatione tua, sicut taurus qui ex pinguedine et fortitudine, nec iugo premitur, et multum generat et superbit. Others are old. Thus, he says, Fat bulls have besieged meEcclesiasticus 6: Do not extol yourself in your thought, like a bull through its bulk and courage, nor is it pressed down by its yoke; it engenders much and is proud.
Dicit quod taurus est animal melancholicum: et propter hoc diu retinet iram; et sicut minores habent audaciam propter multitudinem, ita maiores propter divitias. Et ideo dicit, Pingues: Iob 15. Pingui cervice armatus est. Obsederunt me: Iob 19. Obsederunt in gyro tabernaculum meum. He says this because the bull is a melancholic animal, on account of which it retains its anger for a long time. And just as the young possess insolence on account of their numbers, so too do the old, on account of their wealth. And for this reason he says Fat…Job 15: He is armed with a fat neck. They have besieged me; Job 19: they have besieged my tabernacle round about.
Consequenter ponit persecutores insurgentes ore; unde dicit, Aperuerunt super me os suum. Et quidem multipliciter eum tentando: Matt. 22. Quid me tentatis hypocritae, accusando, invidendo, ad mortem expetendo, dicentes, crucifige: Thren. Inimici mei aperuerunt os suum super me. Consequently, he sets forth his persecutors assailing him in words. Thus he says, They have opened their mouths against me. And indeed, by tempting him several times – Matthew 22: Why do you tempt me, you hypocrites? By accusing, by longing after and awaiting his death, stating, “Crucify him” – Lamentations 2: My enemies have opened their mouths against me.
Consequenter adhibet similitudinem, Sicut leo rapiens et rugiens, cui comparantur propter crudelitatem: Hier. 12. Facta est mihi haereditas mea quasi leo in sylva, dedit contra me vocem: nam leonis est ut capta praeda rugiat: Amos 3. Numquid dabit catulus leonis vocem de cubili suo, nisi aliquid apprehenderit? Et dicit, Rapiens,insidiando, et Rugiens manifeste in mortem expetendo: Ezech. 11. Sicut leo rugiens rapiensque praedam animam devoraverunt. Consequently he employs a similitude, like a snatching and roaring lion, to which they are likened on account of their cruelty – Jeremiah 12: My inheritance has become to me as a lion in the woods; it has gone against my voice; for this is characterisitic of a lion so that having caught its prey, it roars – Amos 3: Will the lion’s cub give voice from its den, if it has taken nothing? And he says, Snatching, by lying in ambush, and Roaring, clearly in awaiting death – Ezechiel 11: Like a lion roaring and snatching prey they devoured my soul.
k. Consequenter ponit persecutionis effectum. Et primo proponit hunc effectum. Secundo exponit eum, ibi, Dispera. Consequently, he determines the effect of his persecution. He first sets forth this effect, and second, explains it, at, Are scattered.
Dicit ergo, Persequuntur me et nocent: quia quantum ad corporalem salutem totaliter invaluerunt; et ideo dicit, Sicut aqua effusus sum. Si effundatur oleum, aliquid remanet in vase; si effundatur vinum, saltem remanet odor in vase, sed de aqua nihil remanet; quasi dicat, Totaliter effusus sum secundum eorum opinionem: 2 Reg. Quasi aquae dilabimur, quae non revertuntur super terram. Aqua leviter effunditur et proiicitur: sic ergo effusus sum. And so, he says, They pursue and harm me, because they have completely prevailed with respect to bodily safety. For this reason he says, Like water I am poured out. If oil were poured out, some would remain in the vessel, and if wine were poured out, at least some odour would remain in the vessel. But if water were poured out, nothing would remain. It is as if he were saying, I am completely poured out according to their opinion – 2 Kings: We are lost like water which is not returned above ground. Water is easily poured out and flung away: so therefore I am poured out.
Sicut etiam Iudaei non solum eum delere desuper terram conati sunt, sed etiam famam eius perdere voluerunt. Also, the Jews not only tried to annihilate him from the face of the earth, they also wanted to destroy his renown.
Vel assimilatur Christus aquae, quia aqua lavat; sic passio Christi de omnibus peccatis et omnes sorder lavat: Apoc. 1. Dilexit nos et lavit nos a peccatis nostris in sanguine suo. Or, Christ is compared to water, because water cleanses, just as Christ’s passion cleanses from every sin and filth – Apoc. 1: He loved us and cleansed us from our sins in his own blood.
Item aqua rigat et facit fructificare, sic passio Christi: Eccl. 24. Dixit irrigo hortum meum etc. Et fructificat fructum vitae aeternae: Eccl. 24. Flores mei, idest passionis meae, fructus honoris et honestatis. Again, water moistens and makes things to bear fruit, just like Christ’s passion – Ecclesiasticus 24: He said, I water my garden etc. And it brings forth the fruit of eternal life – Ecclesiasticus 24: My flowers, that is of my passion, are the fruits of honour and riches.
Item facit vitam lubricam: sic passio Christi disponit Iudaeos ad casum: 1 Cor. 1. Nos autem praedicamus Christum crucifixum: Iudaeis quidem scandalum, gentibus autem stultitiam, ipsis autem vocatis Iudaeis atque Graecis Christum Dei virtutem, et Dei sapientiam. Again, water makes life uncertain, just as Christ’s passion decreed the downfall of the Jews – 1 Cor. 1: But we preached Christ crucified, a scandal to the Jews, and foolishness to the gentiles; but to them that are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God.
Consequenter exponit hunc effectum: et ideo dicit, Dispersa sunt etc. quasi dicat, Quicquid videbatur in me forte, est dissolutum: quicquid pulchrum, emarcuit. Et ideo dicit, Dispersa. Consequently he explains this effect; and thus he says, Are scattered etc., as if he were saying, “Whatever strength was seen in me, is now destroyed: whatever beauty, has withered away.” And thus he says, Scattered.
In homine est duplex fortitudo. Una est fortitudo corporis, et haec consistit in ossibus et nervis; et quantum ad hoc dicit, Dispersa sunt omnia ossa mea; quasi dicat, Omnis virtus mea corporalis defecit; tamen de Christo dicitur spiritualiter: nam apostoli qui sunt ossa Christi, dispersi fuerunt: Zach. 13. Percutiam pastorem, et dispergentur oves gregis. There is a two-fold strength is man. One is the strength of the body, and this consists in the bones and tendons. With respect to this, he says, All my bones are scattered, as if he were saying “Every one of my corporeal powers has failed”; nevertheless, it is said spiritually of Christ: for the apostles, who were the bones of Christ, have become dispersed – Zach. 13: I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered.
Alia est fortitudo animae, quae consistit in corde; unde dicit, Factum est cor meum tanquam caera liquescens. The other is a strength of the soul which consists in the heart. And so he says, My heart has become like melting wax.
Quaerit Augustinus quomodo de Christo capite verum sit: quia hoc videtur provenire ex superabundanti timore, quod non est dicendum de Christo: quia etsi fuerit in eo timor naturalis, non tamen fuit tantus quod liquesceret cor. Et ita intelligitur de Christo non secundum se, sed quantum ad membra, quae quidem sunt cor Christi, quae et praecipue diligit: Phil. 1. Eo quod vos habeam in corde. Et sequitur, Testis est mihi Deus, quomodo cupiam vos esse in visceribus Iesu Christi. Augustine asks how true this is of Christ the head, because this seems to come about from an excess of fear, which is not fittingly said of Christ, since even if natural fear arose in him, nevertheless it was not so much that it melted (or softened) his heart. It is thus not understood of Christ as such, but with respect to his members, which indeed are the body of Christ, and which he especially loves – Phil. 1: …for that I have you in my heart. And it follows, God is my witness, how I long after you all to be in the bowels of Jesus Christ.
Hi fuerunt apostoli qui fuerunt ossa ad sustentandum infirmos in ecclesia, sicut ossa sustentant carnes: Rom. 15. Debemus nos firmiores imbecillitatem infirmorum sustinere. These became apostles who became bones to uphold the infirm within the Church, just like the bones uphold the flesh – Rom. 15: We, the stronger, ought to bear the weakness of the infirm.
Et fuerunt corda eorum sicut caera liquescens. Primo mala liquefactione per timorem, sicut in fuga discipulorum: Matt. 26. Tunc relicto eo fugerunt omnes. Et in negatione Petri: Luc. 22. At ille negavit dicens, homo nescio quid dicis. And their hearts became like melting wax. First, by an evil melting (or softening) through fear, like in the flight of the disciples – Matthew 26: Then leaving him, they all fled. And in Peter’s denial – Luke 22: But he denied him saying, “Man, I do not know what you are talking about.”
Secundo bona liquefactione, sicut in conversione discipulorum, ut patet in Petro et Andrea. Vel dicendum quod liquefactio etiam est amoris: Cant. 5. Anima mea liquefacta est. Res antequam liquefiat dura est et constricta in se; si liquescit, diffunditur et tendit a se in aliud. Second, by a good melting (or softening), like in the conversion of the disciples, as is clear with Peter and Andrew. Or it ought to be said that melting (softening) is also of love – Song of Songs 5: My soul has melted (softened). Before a thing melts (softens), it is hard and bound in itself; if it melts (softens), it pours out, and tends from itself into another.
Timor etiam quandoque indurat, quando scilicet non est magnus: et sic est etiam de amore, quia quando supervenit amor, tunc ostendit in aliud quod ante in se erat. Et de hac liquefactione potest exponi etiam de Christo, secundum quod est caput: nam hoc liquefieri et est a Spiritu sancto, et est in medio ventris, idest affectus. Fear also hardens sometimes, namely when it is not great. It is also so with love, because when love supervenes, then it shows in another what before was in itself. And concerning this melting (softening), it can even be explained concerning Christ, insofar as he is head. For this melting (softening) is both from the Holy Spirit, and in the midst of his bowels, that is his desire.
Vel per cor Christi intelligitur sacra Scriptura, quae manifestat cor Christi. Hoc autem erat clausum ante passionem, quia erat obscura; sed aperta est post passionem, quia eam iam intelligentes considerant, et discernunt quomodo prophetiae sint exponendae. Or, by the heart of Christ is understood Holy Scripture, which manifests the heart of Christ. However, this was closed before the passion, because it was obscure; but is opened after the passion, because they consider it now understanding, and they teach how the prophets are to be explained.
l. Hic ostendit quod quicquid pulchrum fuit in Chrito evanuit. Florere videbantur in Christo ante passionem tria: operatio miraculorum, facundia doctrinae, fama et gloria populorum. At this point, the psalmist shows that whatever beauty was in Christ disappeared. Before his passion, flourishing was seen in Christ in three ways; the performing of miracles, eloquence of teaching, and the fame and glory of the people.
De primo Io. 7. Multitudo magna sequebatur eum, quia videbant etc. Et haec virtus aruit in passione quantum ad opinionem eorum: unde clamabant, Alios slavos fecit etc. Aruit, idest viluit, Tanquam etc. Vel Testa, quando arescit induratur, sic in passione virtus Christi fuit indurata ad sustentandum: Eccl. 27. Vasa figuli probat fornax, et homines iustos tentatio tribulationis. Concerning the first, there is John 7: A great multitude followed him, because they saw etc. And this power dried up during his passion in their opinion. And so, they cried out, He saved others etc. Has dried up, that is, has become worthless, like etc. Or, an earthen vessel, when it becomes dry, is hardened, just as during the passion, Christ’s strength became hardened so as to sustain him – Ecclesiasticus 27: The furnace tests the potter’s vessels, and the trial of tribulation, just men.
De secundo: Matt. 7. Erat docens eos tanquam potestatem habens; sed in passione, Adhaesit lingua mea faucibus meis, prae taciturnitate: Ezec. 3. Adhaerere faciam linguam tuam palato tuo, et eris mutus. Et hoc est factum in passione, quia non respondebat Herodi: Luc. 23. Interrogabat eum Herodes multis sermonibus. At ipse nihil respondebat ei. Concerning the second, there is Matthew 7: He was teaching them as one having power; but in the passion, my tongue cleaves to my jaws, because of a disinclination to talk – Ezechiel 3: I will make your tongue cleave to the roof of your mouth, and you shall be mute. And this was done in the passion, because he did not respond to Herod – Luke 23: Herod questioned him in many words. But he answered him nothing.
De tertio Matt. 21. Plurima autem turba straverunt vestimenta sua in via. Alii autem caedebant ramos de arboribus etc. Tunc impletum est quod David prophetaverat de Christo dicens, Domine salvum me fac, o Domine bene prosperare; benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini, Deus Dominus et illuxit nobis. Sed in passione viluit; unde dicit, Et in pulverem mortis deduxisti me, idest vilem mortem me pati fecisti: Sap. 2. Morte turpissima condemnemus eum. Concerning the third, there is Matthew 21: A very great multitude spread their garments in the way: and others cut boughs from trees etc. Then it was fulfilled what David had prophesied concerning the Christ saying, Lord, make me safe, O Lord, may you prosper well; blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, the Lord God has shone upon us. But in his passion, he withered; and so he says, And you have brought me down to the dust of death, that is, you have made me to suffer a vile death – Wisdom 2: Let us condemn him to a most shameful death.
Vel si referatur ad membra. In pulverem mortis deduxisti me, idest membra mea quae sunt incinerata, non autem Christi. Or, if it is referred to his members. You have brought me down to the dust of death, that is, my members which are reduced to ashes, not however of Christ.
Vel, In pulverem etc. idest in potestatem Iudaeorum dedisti me, qui sunt sicut pulvis etc. Or, You have brought me down to the dust of death, that is, you have given me over to the power of the Jews, who are like dust etc.
m. Hic ponitur modus passionis. Et primo ponit ea quae facta sunt ante crucifixionem. Secundo quae facta sunt in ipsa crucifixione. Tertio quae facta sunt post crucifixionem. At this point, the mode of the passion is set forth. He first determines those things which were done before the crucifixion, second, those which were done during the crucifixion itself, and third, those which were done after the crucifixion.
Ante crucifixionem facta fuerunt duo. Primo fuit captus; et quantum ad hoc dicit, Circumdederunt me canes multi: Phil. 3. Videte canes, videte malos operarios: Isa. 56. Canes impudentissimi nescierunt saturitatem. Before the crucifixion, two things were done. First he was captured; with respect to this he says, Many dogs have surrounded me – Phil. 3: See the dogs, see the evil doers; Isaiah 56: Most impudent dogs, they never had enough.
Item secundo, quomodo fuit illusus; unde dicit, Consilium malignantium obsedit me. Second, how he was derided. And so he says, the counsel of the wicked has besieged me.
Consequenter ponit ea, quae facta sunt in ipsa crucifixione. Et primo quantum ad affixionem, Foderunt manus meas et peds meos, grossis clavibus affigentes ligno: Zac. 13. Quid sunt plagae istae in medio manuum tuarum? Following upon this, he determines those things which were done at the crucifixion. And first, with respect to attachment, They have pierced my hands and my feet, affixing them to the wood with large nails – Zac. 13. What are these wounds in the middle of your hands?
Item quantum ad distensionem dicit, Dinumeraverunt omnia ossa mea, idest dinumerabilia fecerunt. Again, with respect to distention, he says, They have numbered all of my bones, that is, they have been made countable.
n. Hic ponuntur illa, quae facta sunt post passionem; unde dicit, Ipsi etc. Convenientes ad spectaculum ut illuderent: Luc. 23. Milites illudentes impleverunt spongiam aceto dicentes, Si rex Israel es salvum te fac etc. At this point are determined those things which were done after the passion. And so he says, They etc., coming to the spectacle so they might deride him – Luke 23: The soldiers who were deriding him, filled a sponge with sour wine, saying, If you are the king of Israel, save yourself etc.
Et inspexerunt, scilicet quid eveniret de me, Diviserunt inter se vestimenta mea, quae erant plura et divisibilia: Et super vestem meam, scilicet inconsutilem, miserunt sortem; et hoc fecerunt vel propter cupiditatem, vel propter quandam illusionem. And they examined me, namely, what would become of me, They divided my clothes among them, which were several and divisible: And upon my garment, namely seamless, they cast lots; and they did this either because of desire, or as a sort of mockery.
Per haec vestimenta divisa signantur ecclesiae sacramenta; sed per vestem, quae non dividitur, signatur unitas ecclesiae, quam quilibet credit habere; sed non habet nisi unus, quia sola est unitas ecclesiae: Cant. 6. Una est columba perfecta mea. By these divided clothes are signified the sacraments of the Church; but by garment, which is not divided, is signified the unity of the Church, which everyone believes it to have; but it does not have it unless it be one, since there is a single unity of the Church – Song of Songs 6: One is my dove, my perfect one.
o. Narrata passione, hic procedit ad orationem: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo petit divinum auxilium. Secundo petit preastiti auxilii fructum, ibi, Narrabo nomen tuum. Having recounted the passion, he proceeds at this point to his prayer, concerning which he does two things. He asks, first, for divine help, and second, for the fruit of help provided, at I will proclaim your name.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo petit divinum auxilium in generali. Secundo per se in speciali, ibi, Erue a framea. Concerning the first, he does two things. He asks, first, for divine help in general, and second, for himself in particular, at Rescue from the spear.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo petit accelerationem auxilii. Secundo auxilii necessitatem. Concerning the first he does two things. He asks, first, for a hastening of help, and second, for the necessity of help.
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, Sic fecerunt. Foderunt manus meas et pedes meos etc. sed Tu Domine ne elongaveris auxilium tuum a me, idest ne differas praebere mihi homini Christo auxilium divinitatis; quasi dicat, Factum est, quia liberatus est a morte per gloriam resurrectionis, quae non est elongata: quia post triduum resurrexit. Et fuit Christus resurgens: 1 Cor. 15. Christus resurgens ex mortuis primitiae dormientium: Ps. 56 Exurgam diluculo. Therefore, concerning the first, he says, So they have done. They have pierced my hands and my feet etc., but You, O Lord, do not withdraw your help from me, that is, do not delay in giving me God’s help in Christ the man; it is as if he were saying, It was done, because he was freed from death by the glory of his resurrection, which was not withdrawn, since he rose from the dead after three days. And Christ did this, rising from the grave – 1 Cor. 15: Christ rising from the dead, the first of those who sleep; Psalm 56: I will arise at dawn.
Ad defensionem meam conspice; quasi dicat, Ad hoc necessarium est auxilium tuum mihi, scilicet Ad defensionem. Look towards my defense; as if he were saying, For this, your help is necessary to me, namely, For my defense.
Sub umbra alarum tuarum protege me etc. Defende me, scilicet contra persequentes ad mortem, et contra daemones ne detineant in limbo. Sic ergo petiit ne corpus resolvatur in cineres, et ne anima detineatur in inferno: Actu. 2. Solutis doloribus inferni, iuxta quod impossibile erat teneri illum; Ps. 37. Ne derelinquas me etc. Protect me under the shadow of your wings etc. Defend me, namely, against those who persecute me unto death, and against demons so that they might not detain me in limbo. And so, therefore, he asked so that his body would not be reduced to ashes, and that his soul would not be detained in hell – Acts 2: …having loosed the sorrows of hell, as it was impossible that he should be held by it; Psalm 37: Do not forsake me etc.
p. Hic exponit in specialia quibus petat defendi. Et primo contra mortem. Secundo contra tentationem mortis, ibi, De manu canis. At this point, he explains in particular from what he asks to be defended, first against death, and second against the trial of death, at, From the hand of the dog.
Dicit ergo, Conspice ad defensionem meam, et Deus, Erue animam meam, quam ipsi quaerunt, A framea, idest a gladio qui fremit agitatus. Therefore, he says, Look towards my defense, and God, Save my soul, which they themselves seek, from the spear, that is, from the sword which disturbed angrily demands.
Sed contra, Christus non fuit occisus a gladio, sed lancea, et lancea etiam fuit percussus post mortem. But on the other hand, Christ was not slain by a sword, but by a lance, and moreover, by a lance inflicted after death.
Sed dicendum, quod gladius sua acuitate dividit: Heb. 4. Acutior omni gladio ancipiti, et pertingens usque ad divisionem: et ideo quia mors dividit animam a corpore, et patrem a filio, et e contra, et fratrem a fratre, dicitur gladius: Zac. 13. Framea, idest mors, Suscitare super pastorem meum: et ab hac eruitur in resurrectione. However, it must be said that the sword divides by its sharpness – Heb. 4: …sharper than any two-edged sword, and reaching unto the division…: and thus since death divides the soul from the body, father from son, and on the other hand, brother from brother, a sword is said – Zac. 13: O spear, that is death, awake against my shepherd: and from this he is rescued in the resurrection.
Vel framea est lingua adversariorum: Ps. 56. Lingua eorum gladius acutus. Or, spear is the tongue of one’s opponents – Psalm 56: …their tongue a sharp sword.
Vel hic loquitur Christus pro membris, quorum plures sunt occisi gladio: Act. 12. Occidit autem Iacobum fratem Ioannis gladio. Or, Christ speaks here on behalf of his members, of which many were killed by the sword – Acts 12: But he killed Jacob the brother of John by the sword.
Et de manu canis. Hic orat contra tentationes; et tripliciter describit hic eos irrationabiles: et hoc facit sub similitudine canis, qui latrat antequam percipiat contra quem debeat latrare propter subitam iram eius. And from the hand of the dog. He prays here against trials, and he describes them in a three fold way as unreasonable. He does this under the likeness of the dog, which barks immediately in accordance with its anger before it perceives against whom it ought to bark.
Sic Iudaei antequam scierent quare latrarent contra Chrisum clamabant: Phil. 3. Videte canes, videte malos operarios: et supra, Circumdederunt me canes multi. Hoc maxime pertinet contra Iudaeos, qui contra Christum latrantes clamabant, Crucifige crucifige eum. And so, before the Jews know why they bark, they cry out against Christ – Phil. 3: See the dogs, see the evil doers: and above, Many dogs have surrounded me. This pertains most especially to the Jews who, barking against Christ cried out, Crucify, crucify him.
q. Hic describit eos crudeles sub similitudine leonis, qui est crudele animal: et hoc refertur ad Pilatum qui fungitur leonis potestate, idest imperatoris, quem Apostolus dicit leonem: 2 Tim. 4. Liberatus sum de ore leonis. At this point, he describes cruel men under the similitude of the lion, which is a cruel animal. And this is referred to Pilate who exercises the power of a lion, that is, of an emperor, whom the Apostle calls a lion – 2 Tim. 4: I was freed from the mouth of the lion.
Vel refertur ad diabolum: 1 Pet. ult. Tamquam leo rugiens circuit quaerens quem devoret. Or, it is referred to the devil – 1 Peter: Like a roaring lion he goes about, seeking someone to devour.
Et a cornibus unicornium humilitatem meam. Hic describit eos superbos: et refertur ad principes sacerdotum, et scribas, qui scilicet comparantur unicorni superbiam designanti: et hoc incidat quod unum cornu habet in capite, et est tantae superbiae quod nullo modo patitur subiectionem, sed statim captus moritur: Iob 39. Numquid volet rhinoceros, idest unicornis, servire tibi aut morabitur etc. And my lowliness from the unicorn’s horns. Here, he describes arrogant men, and is referred to the High Priest and Scribes, who are compared to the unicorn, designated as arrogant. And it happens that it has one horn on its head, and is so arrogant that in no way does it suffer subjection, but when captured immediately dies – Job 39: The rhinoceros, that is the unicorn, will never desire to serve you, but will die etc.
Et per hoc significantur principes Iudaeorum qui singulariter gloriabantur de congnitione Dei. Et quicumque singulariter se extollit, similis est Pharisaeo: Luc. 18. Non sum sicut caeteri hominum; Ps. 74. Nolite extollere in altum cornu vestrum. And by this is signified the rulers of the Jews who especially boast in their knowledge of God. And whoever especially raises himself up, is similar to a Pharisee – Luke 18: I am not as other men are; Psalm 74: Lift not your horn up high.
r. Consequenter ostendit divini auxilii fructum. Et primo ostendit hoc quantum ad ipsum Christum. Secundo quantum ad alios, ibi, Edent pauperes. Consequently, he shows the fruit of divine help. And he shows this first with respect to Christ himself, and second, with respect to others, at, The poor shall eat.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit duplicem fructum, scilicet praedicationis et laudis. Secundo explicat utrumque, ibi, Qui timetis. Concerning the first, he does two things. First, he determines a two-fold fruit, namely, of proclamation and of praise, and second, he explains both, at, You who fear.
Circa primum ponit duplicem fructum de liberatione Christi. Primus fructus Christi fuit praedicatio per universum mundum. Concerning the first, he determine the two fold fruit of Christ’s liberation. The first fruit becomes a proclamation through the whole world.
Dicit ergo, Salva me ex ore leonis etc. quia salvatus et liberatus de faucibus eorum. Therefore he says, Save me from the lion’s mouth etc. because he was saved and liberated from its jaws.
Narrabo nomen tuum fratribus meis, idest apostolis: et hoc fecti post resurrectionem. Sunt autem apostoli fratres sui, et per naturam assumptam, et per gratiam vocationis ad apostolatum: Rom. 8. Quod praescivit et praedestinavit conformes fieri imaginis Filii sui: quos praedestinavit hos et vocavit. I will proclaim your name to my brothers, that is, to the apostles. And this was done after the resurrection. The apostles are brothers to Christ both through assumed nature and by the grace of the calling to apostleship – Romans 8: (For those whom) he has foreknown he has also predestined to become conformed to the image of his Son: those whom he has predestined, them he has also called.
Sed numquid non narravit ante passionem nomen Dei, cum ipse dicat Io. 22. Pater manifestavi nomen tuum hominibus etc. But he did not set forth the name of God before the passion, although he himself said at John 22: Father I have made your name known to men etc.
Dicendum quod sic: sed plenius post passionem et resurrectionem. Primo quidem narravit discipulis ore proprio, quando aperuit illis sensum ut intelligerent Scripturas, Luc. ult. It must be said thus: but more fully after his passion and resurrection. First, he sets it forth to the disciples by his own mouth, when he opened their minds to them so that they might understand the Scriptures – Luke 24.
Secundo dando eis Spiritum paraclitum: Io. 16. Cum venerit paraclitus ille spiritus veritatis, docebit vos omnem veritatem. Et Io. 14. Manifestabo ei meipsum: Luc. 21. Tunc videbunt filium hominis venientem cum potestate magna et maiestate. Tunc enim in Filio cognoscent Patrem: Io. 14. In dei illa cognoscitis, quia ego in Patre, et Pater in me, et ego in vobis. Et hoc ipsi soli filio convenit ut ipse dicit Matt. 10. Nemo novit Patrem nisi filius. Second, by giving them the Holy Spirit – John 16: But when he, the Spirit of truth, has come, he will teach you every truth. And John 14: I will reveal to him my very self; Luke 21: Then they will see the Son of Man coming with great power and majesty. For at that time, they will know the Father in the Son – John 14: On that day, you will know that I am in the Father, and the Father is in me, and that I am in you. And this is suitable only to the Son himself as he himself says at Matthew 10: No one knows the Father except the Son.
Secundus fructus liberationis Christi fuit laus divina; unde dicit, In medio ecclesiae laudabo te: Isa. 44. Laus eius ab extremis terrae. The second fruit of Christ’s liberation was divine praise. And so he says, In the midst of the Church I will praise youIsaiah 44: His praise from the ends of the earth.
Sed dicit, In medio ecclesiae, quod Augustinus sic exponit, dicens primo sic. Illud dicimus esse in medio, quod est in manifesto. In veteri testamento Deus laudabatur in occulto, idest in mysteriis; sed in novo laudatur in publico, quia in nuda veritate: 2 Cor. 3. Nos autem revelata facie gloriam Domini contemplantes, per amotionem velaminum. But his says, In the midst of the Church, which Augustine explains as follows. We say that something is in the middle or in our midst, which is in the open. In the Old Testament, God was praised in secret, that is, in secret rites. But in the New Testament, he is praised in public, because (he exists now) in unveiled truth – 2 Cor. 3: But we, contemplating the glory of God revealed to our face, through the removal of our veils.
Aliquando dicimus esse in medio illud, quod est intimum. Intimi in ecclesia sunt viri perfecti, qui specialiter laudant Deum in corde. In medio ecclesiae laudabo te, idest in doctoribus et viris perfectis. Sometimes we say something is in the middle which is innermost. Such in the Church are the perfected men who especially praise God in their hearts. In the midst of the Church I will praise you, that is, in your doctors and perfected men.
s. Exequitur utrumque. Et primo primum. Secundo secundum, ibi, Apud te. Both are accomplished in order, the latter at (My praise is) before you.
In primo proponit totam praedicationem novi testamenti, quomodo narratur nomen Domini. Et primo ostendit ad quid inducuntur homines in novo testamendo. Secundo quid eis narretur, ibi, Quoniam non sprevit. In the former, he sets down the entire proclamation of the New Testament, in what way the name of the Lord is set forth. He first shows that to which men are led in the New Testament, and second, what is set forth to them, at, For he has not spurned.
Ad tria inducuntur homines in novo testamento, videlicet ad confessionem oris, ad quaerendam glorima Dei, et ad Deum timendum. Quantum ad primum dicit, Qui timetis Deum laudate eum. In the New Testament, men are led to three things, namely to the confession of the mouth, to seek the glory of God, and to fear God. With respect to the first he says, You who fear the Lord, praise him.
Est autem duplex timor, unus filialis qui timet Deum offendere, et timet ab eo separari, et exhibet ei reverentiam; et hic est ex caritate. Alius autem est timor servilis, qui timet solum poenam: et hic non est ex charitate: Io. 4. Charitas foras mittit timorem. Now, there is a two-fold fear. The first is filial, where one fears to offend God and to be separated from him; he exhibits reverence to Him, and this is from love. The other, however, is a servile fear, where one fears only the penalty; and this is not from love – John 4: Love banishes fear.
Vetus lex fuit timoris; sed nova est lex amoris. Vos ergo, Qui timetis Dominum, idest qui impletis legem ex timore, Laudate eum, quia nihil laudat quis quod non diligit; quasi dicat: Confitemini ei ex amore: Ps. 116: Laudate Dominum etc. The Old Law was of fear; but the New Law is a law of love. Therefore, You who fear the Lord, that is, you who have fulfilled the law out of fear, Praise him, since no one praises something which he does not value highly; it is as if he were saying “We acknowledge him out of love” – Psalm 116: Praise the Lord etc.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Universum semen Iacob magnificate eum: 1 Cor. 10. Sive manducatis, sive bibitis, sive aliud facitis, omnia in gloriam Dei facite. Et dicit universum semen Iacob etc. quia filiis Iacob, idest Iudaeis lex veteris testamenti fuit data, in qua promittitur gloria Dei. Et dicit, Universum, ut includat filios promissionis qui computantur in semine, ut dicitur Gal. 3. scilicet gentiles. With respect to the second, he says, All offspring of Jacob, glorify him1 Cor. 10: Whether you are eating, drinking or doing something else, do everything for the glory of God. And he says All offspring of Jacob etc. because to the sons of Jacob, that is, to the Jews, the law of the Old Testament was given, in which the glory of God is promised. And he says, All, so as to include the sons of the promise who are counted among their offspring, as is said at Galatians 3, namely the nations.
Quantum autem ad tertium dicit, Timeat eum omne semen Israel, timore reverentiae qui est cum dilectione: Deut. 10. Et nunc quid Dominus Deus tuus petit a te nisi ut timeas eum, et ambules in viis eius? Israel idem est quod Iacob. With respect to the third, he says, Let all the offspring of Israel fear him, with a fear of reverence which is with delight – Deut. 10: And now, what does the Lord, your God, desire from you except that you fear him, and walk in his ways? Israel is the same as Jacob.
t. Hic ostenditur quid eis annuncietur, scilicet virtus Christi, secundum quod loquitur in persona Christi orantis. At this point is shown what is announced to them, namely the power of Christ, as it speaks in the person of Christ praying.
Aliquando enim non vult quis preces exaudire, quando scilicet ipsum pro quo petitur, non vult videre, vel quando non vult videre rogantem; aliquando etsi vult videre rogantem, non tamen vult exaudire petitionem: et hoc excludit quantum ad primum cum dicit, Non sprevit, quasi negligendo: Neque despexit deprecationem pauperis, idest humilitatem eius qui non habet spem in temporalibus, idest Christi. Sometimes, one does not want to regard someone’s prayers, namely, when he does not want to see the very one on behalf of whom he is petitioned; or when he does not want to see the one asking. Sometimes, even if he wants to see the one asking, he does not want to listen to his petition. With respect to the first, he excludes this when he says, He has not spurned, as it were, by being neglectful: Nor despised the deprecation of the poor, that is, his humility which does not have hope in temporal things, but in Christ.
Secundum ostendit, Nec avertit faciem suam a me, quasi non acceptando me: Ps. 68. Ne avertas faciem tuam a puero tuo etc. Second, he shows, Nor has he turned his face from me, as it were, by not accepting me – Psalm 68: Do not avert your face from your child etc.
Tertium cum dicit, Et cum clamarem ad eum exaudivit me, quia iudex admisit quod petii pro me et pro meis: Io. 16. Si quid petieritis Patrem in nomine meo, dabit vobis: Io. 2. Clamavi, et exaudisti vocem meam. Third, when he says, And when I called upon him, he heard me, because the judge allows what I have asked on behalf of myself and mine – John 16: Whatever you petition the Father in my name, he will give to you; John 2: I cried out, and you listened to my voice.
Et nota quod ante passionem tria dicit se fuisse passum. Dicit enim fuisse abiectum, Ego sum vermis etc. Derelictum, Quare me dereliquisti. Item dicit se non exauditum, Clamabo per diem et non exaudies: et quare tunc dicebat, Verba delictorum, idest pertinentia ad infirmitatem carnis secundum quam potius temporalia quaeruntur; nunc autem quia per resurrectionem ad hoc genus adduxit humanam naturam ut quaereret spiritualia, dicit contrarium. Note that before the passion he said that three things were to be suffered by him, namely he would be cast aside, I am a worm etc., forsaken, Why have you forsaken me, and would not be listened to, I will cry out by day and you do not listen: and why he was then speaking, words of transgressions, that is, belonging to the infirmities of the flesh according to which temporal things are more sought. Now, however, because through the resurrection, for this kind (of people), he has prompted human nature so that it might seek spiritual things, he speaks the contrary.
Quia supra dixit, Ego sum vermis etc. hic dicit, Non sprevit me etc. Supra dixit, Dereliquisti me, hic dicit, Neque avertit faciem suam a me. Supra dixit, Clamabo per diem, hic dicit, dum clamarem ad eum, exaudivit me. Because he said above, I am a worm etc., here he says, He has not spurned me etc. Above he said, You have forsaken me, here he says, Nor has he turned his face from me. Above, he said, I will cry out by day, here he says, When I called upon him, he heard me.
u. Supra Psalmista ex persona Christi duo promisit se dicturum, scilicet narrationem divini nominis, et laudem Dei. De primo iam dixit; hic agit de secundo, scilicet de laude divina. Previously, the Psalmist, in the person of Christ, promised that he was to speak of two things, namely the setting forth of the divine name, and the praise of God. He has already spoken concerning the first; at this point, he takes up the second, namely divine praise.
Circa hoc duo facit. Primo ostendit qualis sit laus Dei. Secundo quomodo laudi adiungit opus, ibi, Vota mea etc. Concerning this he does two things. First, he shows of what sort is the praise of God, and second, how the work adds to praise, at, My vows etc.
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, Apud te laus mea. Et hoc potest dupliciter intelligi. Uno modo sic: laus mea qua ego laudor, est apud te, non apud homines a quibus non habeo laudem, sed a te: 2 Cor. 10. Non qui seipsum commendat ille probatus est, sed quem Deus commendat. And so, with respect to the first, he says My praise is before you. And this can be understood in a two-fold way. In the first way, as so: My praise by which I am praised, is before you, not among men from whom I do not have praise, but from you – 2 Cor. 10: It is not the one who commends himself that is acceptable, but the one whom God commends.
Alio modo sic: Laus mea, qua scilicet te laudo, est Apud te, non in oculis hominum: Eccl. 47. De omni corde suo laudavit Deum, et dilexit Dominum, et hoc, In ecclesia magna, per me et meo nomine congregata. Magna, dilatatione: Isa. 54. Dilata locum tentorii tui, et pelles tabernaculorum tuorum extende. Magna, potestate: Matt. 16. Super hanc petram aedificabo ecclesiam meam etc. et quodcumque solveris etc. Dignitate: Apoc. 11. Reges terrae afferent gloriam suam et honorem in illam. In the second way, as so: My praise, by which, namely, I praise you, is before you, and not in the eyes of men – Ecclesiasticus 47: Concerning all things, he praised God in his heart, and delighted the Lord, and this, in the great church, brought together through me and my name. Great, in expansion – Isaiah 54: Expand the space of your tents, and extend the skins of your tabernacles. Great, in power – Matthew 16: Upon this rock I will build my church etc., and whatever you loosen etc. Great, in dignity – Apoc. 11: The kings of the earth will affirm his glory and honour on that day.
Hic ostendit quomodo laudi adiungit opus. Votum Christi fuit ut se daret pro salute fidelium: ipse enim illud vovit inquantum homo: Ps. 39. Ut facerem voluntatem tuam, Deus meus volui. Quae quidem voluntas Dei est sanctificatio nostra: Isa. 6. Descendi de caelo non ut faciam voluntatem meam, sed voluntatem eius qui misit me. At this point, he shows how work adds to praise. Christ’s vow was made so that he might offer himself for the salvation of the faithful: he vowed himself to this as a man – Psalm 39: I have desired, my God, that I might do you will. For indeed the will of God is our sanctification – John 6: I have come down from heaven not so that I might do my will, but the will of him who sent me.
Haec vota solvit Christus dando se ad passionem, et iterum quando dedit corpus suum in cibum fidelium; unde dicit, Vota, idest sacrificia: Reddam, in ara crucis et sacrificium fidelium; et hoc faciam, In conspectu timentium eum: Eccl. 5 Qui timet Dominum, honorat parentes. Christ repays these vows by giving himself to the passion, and furthermore when he gave his body for the food of the faithful. And so he says, Vows, that is, sacrifices: I will repay, on the altar of the cross and the sacrifice of the faithful; and this I will do, in the sight of those who fear himEcclesiasticus 5: He who fears the Lord, honours his parents.
v. Hic consequenter ponit effectum passionis qui est ad alios: et primo proponit diversos passionis effectus; secundo ostendit eos ad futura pertinere, ibi, Annunciabitur. Consequently, at this point he sets down the effect of the passion for others. He first sets forth diverse effects of the passion and second, shows them to pertain to the future, at There will be announced.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit effectus pertinentes ad apostolos. Secundo ponit tales effectus per apostolos ad alios derivatos, ibi, Reminiscentur. Concerning the first he does two things. First, he sets forth the effects pertaining to the Apostles, and second, he determines the sort of effects dispensed to others through the Apostles.
Ad apostolos pertinet ministerium dominici sacramenti: quod designatur cum dicit, Edent pauperes, idest humiles et contemnentes res mundi: Matt. 3. Beati pauperes spiritu, quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum. Isti edent sacrificium, idest sacramentum corporis et sanguinis sacramentaliter et spiritualiter. To the Apostles pertain the ministry of the Lord’s sacraments, which is designated when he says, The poor shall eat, that is, the humble and despised things of the world – Matthew 3: Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. These very ones will eat the sacrifice, that is, the sacrament of the Lord’s body and blood, both sacramentally and spiritually.
Et ex hoc sequitur triplex effectus; spiritualis, scilicet satietas, laus, et vita. Quantum ad primum dicit, Et saturabuutur, quia quiescet desiderium suum in plenitudine gratiarum, quae per hoc sacramentum acquiruntur: Ps. 62. Sicut adipe et pinguedine repleatur anima mea. And from this follows a three-fold effect; spiritual, namely sufficiency, praise, and life. With respect to the first he says, And they will be satisfied, because he will quiet their desire in an abundance of graces, which are acquired through this sacrament – Psalm 62: My soul is filled as with grease and fat.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Et laudabunt Dominum qui requirunt eum. Nec mirum, quia laus sequitur ex laetitia: Isa. 51. Venient in Syon laudantes et laetitia sempiterna super capita eorum. Satietas autem desiderii causat delectationem: Isa. 55. Delectabitur in crassitudine anima vestra, idest in spirituali pinguedine: Ps. 41. In voce exultationis et confessionis sonus epulantis. Sed non quilibet laudat Deum; sed Qui requirunt eum, idest qui nihil aliud quaerunt nisi Christum, vel Deum: Isa. 35. Quaerite Deum dum inveniri potest; invocate eum dum prope est. With respect to the second, he says, And they will praise the Lord who seek him. This is not extraordinary, because praise follows upon joy – Isaiah 51: They shall come into Zion praising and everlasting joy upon their heads. Sufficiency of desire causes delight – Isaiah 55: Your soul will be delighted in thickness, that is, in spiritual fatness – Psalm 41: The noise of those feasting, with the sound of exaltation and acknowledgement. But not just anyone praises God, but Those who seek him, that is, those who seek nothing other than Christ, or God – Isaiah 35: Seek the Lord while he may be found; call on him while he is near.
Quantum ad tertium dicit, Vicent corda eorum etc. Io. 6. Si quis manducaverit ex hoc pane, vivet in aeternum: et ideo dicit, Vivet; quasi dicat: Quamvis corpora moriantur imitando passionem Domini, tamen corde vivent: Ps. 68. Quaerite Dominum, et vivet anima vestra. With respect to the third, he says, Their hearts will live foreverJohn 6: He who eats of this bread, will live forever. And thus he says, He will live, as if he were saying, “Although bodies pass away by imitating the passion of the Lord, nevertheless they will live in heart – Psalm 68: Seek the Lord, and your soul will live.
w. Hic ponit effectus derivatos ad alios. Et primo communiter ad omnes. Secundo quantum ad carnales, ibi, Manducaverunt. Tertio quantum ad spirituales, ibi, Et anima mea. At this point, he sets down the effects dispensed to others, first, commonly to all, second, with respect to carnal people, at, All have eaten, and third, with respect to spiritual people, at, And my soul.
Est autem triplex effectus. Primus est divina cognitio ad quam gentes per apostolos devenerunt. Secundus est effectus ad conversionem ad Christum. Tertius effectus manifestatur per operis perfectionem. There is a three-fold effect. First, there is divine knowledge at which the nations arrive through the Apostles, second, there is the effect to the conversion to Christ, and the third effect is manifested through the perfection of the work.
Quantum ad primum dicit, Reminiscentur. Hominibus naturaliter inserta est quaedam Dei cognitio; sed obliviscuntur Domini per peccatum: Deut. 32. Oblitus es Domini creatoris tui. Gentiles autem habuerant aliquam Dei cognitionem, sed obliti fuerunt propter peccata; sed per apostolos fuerunt reducti ad reminiscentiam naturalis cognitionis: Ie. 31. Recordammi Domini procul. With respect to the first, he says, They will remember. In men, there is naturally inserted a certain knowledge of God. However, they forget God through sin – Deut. 32: You have forgotten the Lord, your creator. The nations had some knowledge of God, but it had been forgotten because of sin; however, through the Apostles, they were led back to the remembrance of this natural knowledge – Jeremiah (?) 31: Remember only the Lord.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Et revertentur ad Dominum, scilicet per amorem. Et hoc fecerunt non solum Iudaei, sed, Universi fines terrae: Isa. 21. Si quaeritis quaerite; convertimini, et venite: With respect to the second, he says, And they will be returned to the Lord, namely through love. And this was done not only for Israel, but for All the ends of the earthIsaiah 21: If you will inquire, inquire; turn back and come -
et hi duo effectus etiam ad sacramentum altaris pertinet, quod est quoddam memoriale dominicae passionis, ut dicitur 1. Cor. 11. and these two effects also pertain to the sacrament of the altar, since it is a kind of memorial of the Lord’s passion, as is said at 1 Cor. 11.
Ideo dicit Reminiscentur, quia conversio animae ad Deum est effectus sacramenti altaris: Ps. 22. Super aquam refectionis educavit me. Colentes eum non in caeremoniis, sed, In conspectu eius, scilicet spirituali cultu: Io. 4. Veri adoratores adorabunt Patrem in spiritu et veritate. Et omnes familiae gentium: Soph. 2. Adorabunt eum viri de loc suo, omnes insulae gentium; quasi, ut intelligatur quod gentiles coluerunt Deum Israel: et sicut proselyti euntes ad habitandum eum Iudaeis, recesserunt a loco suo. And so he says They will remember, since the conversion of the soul to God is an effect of the sacrament of the altar – Psalm 22: He leads me beside still waters. Honouring him not in ceremonies, but In his presence, namely in spiritual worship – John 4: True worshippers will adore the Father in spirit and in truth. And all the families of the nations – Wisdom 2: The men will adore him concerning this place, all the islands of the nations; as it were, that it may be understood that the nations worshipped the God of Israel: and just as the proselytes going to the Jews to live with him, they returned to his place.
x. Potestas spiritualis totius mundi est Christi: Dan. 7. Et dedit ei potestatem, et regnum etc. Et non solum Iudaeorum, secundum illud, Super solium David; sed ipse dominabitur gentium: Ps. 2. Postula a me, et dabo tibi gentes haereditatem. The spiritual power of the whole world is of Christ – Daniel 7: And he gave power to him, and the kingdom etc. And not only of the Jews, according to that, Upon David alone; but he himself will rule the nations – Psalm 2: Ask of me, and I will give you the nations as your inheritance.
y. Hic ponitur effectus qui secutus est quantum ad carnales: et ponit duo. Primo ponit bonum eorum. Secundo ponit eorum defectum, ibi, In conspectu eius cadent, carnales: et hi perceperunt duplex bonum, scilicet participationem sacri, et venerationem Dei in cultu. At this point, he determines the effect which followed with respect to carnal people. And he sets down two things. First, he determines their good, and second, their defect, at, They, carnal people, fall down in his presence: and these receive a two-fold good, namely participation in sacred things, and veneration of God in worship.
Quantum ad primum dicit, Manducaverunt, licet indigne, quia carnales sunt: 1 Cor. 15. Caro et sanguis regnum Dei non possidebunt. De bonis dixit supra quod saturabuntur et laudabunt Dominum, et vivent, quia venerantur sacramentum per fidem quam habent. Sed isti quia sunt pingues terrae, idest in terrenis defixi, idest non in spiritualibus elevati: Cadent in conspectu eius, scilicet Dei: Hier. 21: Inebriabo animas sacerdotum pinguedine, et populus meus bonis meis adimplebitur. With respect to the first, he says, They have eaten, although unworthy, because they are carnal – 1 Cor. 15: Flesh and blood will not possess the kingdom of God. Concerning the good he said above that they will be satisfied and will praise the Lord, and they will live, because they reverence the sacrament through the faith which they have. But these very people because they are the fat of the earth, that is, fixed upon earthly things, and not raised up to spiritual ones – They fall down in his presence, namely God’s – Jerome 21:
Isti designantur per vaccas pingues, Amos 4. Deut. 32. Incrassatus est dilectus, et recalcitravit: nam, qui indigne manducat et bibit, iudicium sibi manducat et bibit, ut dicitur 1. Cor. 11. These are designated by fat cows, Amos 4; Deut 32: He was fattened and loved, and has become resistive: for, he who eats and drinks unworthily, eats and drinks the judgment to himself, as is said at 1 Cor. 11.
Et bene dicit, Omnes qui descendunt, idest si qui affectu demerguntur ad terrena: quia etsi isti videantur stare in conspectu hominum, tamen in conspectu Dei cadent: Isa. 8. Offendent ex eis plurimi, et cadent. And he well says, All those who go down, that is, those who are submerged in earthly matters by their emotions, because even if these seem to stand in the presence of men, nevertheless they fall in the presence of God – Isaiah 8: Many of these they offend, and they fall.
Vel, Cadent in conspectu eius, idest substernentur ei etiam inimici, Omnes qui descendunt in terram, idest in corruptionem peccati: Ps. 2. In nomine Iesu omne genu flectatur. Or, They fall in his presence, that is, they are submitted to him, even his enemies, All those who go down to the earth, that is, into the corruption of sin – Philippians 2: At the name of Jesus, every knee shall bend.
z. Hic ponitur effectus quoad spirituales. Anima Christi sunt illi in quibus requiescit Spiritus sanctus, spirituales scilicet, qui dupliciter se habent ad Deum. At this point he determines the effect with respect to spiritual persons. The soul of Christ is in those upon whom the Holy Spirit rests, namely spiritual people, which is related to God in a two-fold way.
Primo quantum ad cor, quia vivunt illi, scilicet Deo, vel Christo: Gal. 2. Vivo ego etc. 2. Cor. 5. Qui vivunt iam non sibi ipsi vivant, sed ei qui pro ipsis mortuus est. First, with respect to the heart, because they live in this, namely in God, or Christ – Gal. 2: I live etc.; 2 Cor. 5: Those who are living now do not live for themselves, but for the one who died for them.
Secundo quantum ad opus, Et semen meum. Semen bonum sunt filii regni; quasi dicat, Filii quos ego seminavi, servierunt soli Deo: quia omnia opera quae fecerunt, ad eius gloriam retulerunt. Second, with respect to work, and my offspring. Good offspring are the sons of the kingdom; it is as if he were saying, “Sons which I myself have brought forth, serve God alone; since every work which they have done, they refer to his glory.”
aa. Hic exponit quando fiet, quia non in tempore, sed in futuris temporibus: et ponit tria. Primo praenunciat fidei praedicationem. Secundo a quibus debeat praedicari. Tertio quibus praedicetur. At this point, he explains when this will happen, because it is not at that time, but at a future date. And he sets down three things. First, he makes a proclamation of faith, second, by whom it ought to be proclaimed, and third, to whom it will be proclaimed.
Quantum ad primum dicit, Annunciabitur Domino generatio ventura: et hoc potest dupliciter exponi. With respect to the first, he says There will be announced to the Lord a generation to come. And this can be explained in a two-fold way.
Uno modo cum Hieronymo; quasi dicat, Generatio ventura annunciabitur, idest evangelizabitur. Et ad hoc, ut convertantur ad Dominum. Etiam annunciabitur sive passive; quasi dicat, Per praedicationem apostolorum illa generatio adducetur ad Dominum: Matt. 11. Pauperes evangelizantur. In one way with Jerome; it is as if he were saying, A generation to come will be announced, that is, it will be evangelized, so that they might be turned towards the Lord. Also, it will be announced or rather passively announced, as if he were saying “Through the proclamation of the Apostles, that generation will be brought to the Lord” – Matt. 11: The poor will be evangelized.
Vel sic. Bonum generationis annunciabitur per angelos ipsi Deo, non quod ignoret sive indigeat, sed ut ordo servetur, ut dicit Dionysius, et ut dicitur Tob. 12. Ego sum Raphael angelus unus ex septem qui astamus ante Dominum. Et annunciabunt caeli, idest caelestes apostoli: Phil. 3. Nostra conversatio in caelis est: iustitiam eius, non humanam, sed Dei quam repellunt Iudaei: Ro. 10. Ignorantes Dei iustitiam, et suam quaerentes instituere etc. Or thus: The generation’s good will be announced by the angels to God himself, not that he is unknowing or wanting, but so that order is observed, as Dionysius says, and as is said in Tobit 12: I am Raphael, one of the seven angels who stand before the Lord. And the heavens will announce, that is, the apostolic heavens – Phil. 3: Our conversation is in heaven – his justice, not human, but God’s, which the Jews repel – Romans 10: Ignorant of the justice of God, and seeking to establish their own etc.
Quibus annunciabitur, Populo qui nascetur, spirituali generatione: Io. 3. Nisi quis renatus fuerit etc. Hic autem populus non renascitur operatione humana, sed divina: Io. 1. Non ex sanguinibus, neque ex voluntate carnis, neque ex voluntate viri, sed ex Deo nati sunt. Et ideo dicit, Quem fecit Dominus: Ps. 99. Dominus fecit nos etc.these translations are held by the individuals who have translated them. They are offered for public use with the provision that, if copied, they not be altered from their present form, and that the copyright notice remain at the bottom of each translation to ensure that appropriate credit be given to both individual and the Project. Links should be established to this index page. All Biblical translations are taken from the Douay-Rheims version. It will be announced to them, as to a People who are born, by a spiritual generation – John 3: Unless a man be born again etc. However, this people is not born again by human workings, but by divine – John 1: Not from blood, nor from the will of the flesh, nor from the will of man, but from God they were born. And for this reason, he says, Whom the Lord will makePsalm 99: The Lord made us etc.

4 Responses to “St Thomas Aquinas’ Commentary On Psalm 22”

  1. [...] St Thomas Aquinas’ Lecture on Psalm 22. Latin and English side by side. [...]

  2. [...] St Thomas Aquinas’ Commentary on the Responsorial (Psalm 22). Psalm 21 in his translation. Latin and English text are side by side. [...]

  3. [...] Lamp reproduces the commentaries on Psalm 3, Psalm 8, Psalm 10(9), Psalm 11(10), Psalm 15(14), Psalm 22(21), Psalm 23(22), Psalm 27(26), Psalm 30(29), Psalm 34(33), Psalm 36(35), Psalm 47(46), Psalm 51(50), [...]

  4. [...] Lamp reproduces the commentaries on Psalm 3, Psalm 8, Psalm 10(9), Psalm 11(10), Psalm 15(14), Psalm 22(21), Psalm 23(22), Psalm 27(26), Psalm 30(29), Psalm 34(33), Psalm 36(35), Psalm 47(46), Psalm 51(50), [...]

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