Text in red are my additions.
Rev 7:2 And I saw another angel ascending from the rising of the sun, having the sign of the living God. And he cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea,
Ascending from the rising of the sun. That is, from the east. The Lord incarnate, Who is the Angel of the great counsel, that is, the Messenger of His Father’s will, has visited us, “the day-spring from on highk,” bearing the ensign of the cross, with which to seal His own in their foreheads. Most scholars, ancient and modern, would interpret the angel here as an actual angel, not the Lord. It should be noted that is some passages of scripture the appearance of an angel (messenger) is not clearly distinguishable from a manifestation of God (compare Gen 16:7, 11 with Gen 16:13; see also Ex 3:2-6; Judges 6:11-16). This, coupled with the fact that the east was often associated with the coming of the Messiah or the manifestation of God (Ezek 43:2; Matt 2:2; Luke 1:78).
voice. The “loud voice of the Lord” is the cry which is lifted up on high, “Repent ye, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.” See Matt 4:17
Rev 7:3 Saying: Hurt not the earth nor the sea nor the trees, till we sign the servants of our God in their foreheads.
Hurt not. From the time that the Lord suffered, not only was the dominion of the enemy who opposed Him destroyed, but that of worldly power too, as we both see with our eyes, and read of in the image which the stone from the mountain “broke in pieces.” See Dan 2:34, 45.
foreheads. For to this end was the empire of the nations broken up, that the face of the saints might be freely marked with the seal of faith, which these had resisted. For, again, the figure of the cross itself represents the kingdom of the Lord extending everywhere, as the old saying proves:—
“Behold the world four-square, in parts distinct,
To shew the realm of faith possessing all.”
And not in vain was the sacred Name of the Lord, of four letters, written on the forehead of the High Priest, inasmuch as this is the sign on the forehead of the faithful, of which it is also sung in; the Psalm (Ps 8) “for the winepresses,” “O Lord, our Lord, how wonderful is Thy Name in all the earth?” and the rest, until he says, “That thou mayest destroy the enemy and the defendero.”
Rev 7:4 And I heard the number of them that were signed. An hundred forty-four thousand were signed, of every tribe of the children of Israel.
number. By this definite number is signified the innumerable multitude of the whole Church, which is descended from the patriarchs either by the lineage of nature, or the imitation of faith. For, he says, “if ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed.” (Gal 3:29) And it tends to additional completeness, that the twelve also should be multiplied by twelve, and brought to a sum of thousands, which is the cube of the number ten, by which is represented the enduring life of the Church. And for this reason, too, it is often denoted by the number twelve, because throughout the foursquare world it subsists by faith in the Holy Trinity, for three times four are ten and two. Finally, also, when the Apostles were to preach the same faith to the whole world, twelve were chosen, as signifying by their number the mystery of their work.
Rev 7:9 After this, I saw a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations and tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and in sight of the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands.
multitude. On the conclusion of the recapitulation, which had been interposed for the sake of example, he returns to the previous order, and announces the glory of those who are to overcome the wickedness of the last persecution. And that which follows, “From all nations, and tribes, and peoples, and tongues,” may also be thus understood, that, after enumerating the tribes of Israel, to whom the Gospel was first preached, he desires to make mention of the salvation of the Gentiles as well.
robes. By “robes” he signifies baptism, by “palms” the triumph of the Cross, and he intimates that in Christ they have overcome the world. But robes may also double the glory which is given by the Holy Spirit.
Rev 7:10 And they cried with a loud voice, saying: Salvation to our God, who sitteth upon the throne and to the Lamb.
cried. They proclaim with a loud voice, that is, with great devotion, an unceasing praise, that on the throne, namely, in the Church, there reign the Father and the Son; the Holy Spirit, nevertheless, reigning together with them. For it is said, “To Him Who sitteth upon the throne, and to the Lamb;” in the same manner as it is said in the Gospel, “And may know Thee, the true and only God, and Jesus Christ, Whom Thou hast sent” (Jn 17:3); in which place, “may know the only and true God” is understood.
Rev 7:11 And all the angels stood round about the throne and the ancients and the four living creatures. And they fell down before the throne upon their faces and adored God,
angels. In all the angels he has represented the persons of the great multitude worshipping the Lord. “All they,” he says, “who are round about Him will offer gifts.” (Ps 75:12)
fell. In this passage he relates, that neither the multitude, nor the living creatures, nor the elders worshipped, but the angels alone. For these are the multitude, these the living creatures and the elders. But it may also be understood of the angelic spirits themselves, of whom, as rejoicing together at the salvation of the Gentiles, it is saids, “Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with His people” (Deut. 32:43; Rom. 15:10), and, “Let all the angels of God worship Him” (Deut 32:43, LXX; Heb 1:5).
Rev 7:12 Saying: Amen. Benediction and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving, honour and power and strength, to our God, for ever and ever. Amen.
blessing. The Church offers the sevenfold praise of excellence unto the Lord, and in each of its members confesses to have received this from Him.
Rev 7:13 And one of the ancients answered and said to me: These that are clothed in white robes, who are they? And whence came they?
who? He asks for this end, that he may teach.
Rev 7:14 And I said to him: My Lord, thou knowest. And he said to me: These are they who are come out of great tribulation and have washed their robes and have made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
tribulation. “Through many tribulations we must enter into the kingdom of God” (Acts 14:22), but who knows not that the tribulation of Antichrist will be greater than all the rest?
washed. He speaks not of martyrs alone. They are washed in their own blood. But the blood of Jesus, the Son of God, cleanses the whole Church from all sin, therefore are they before the throne of God. For they are accounted worthy to stand there together in the service of God, who in the midst of adverse things are faithful confessors of His Name.