The Divine Lamp

The unfolding of thy words gives light; it imparts understanding to the simple…Make thy face shine upon thy servant, and teach me thy statutes

Commentaries for Weekdays (Years I and II) and Sundays (Years A, B and C) and Solemnities

Posted by Dim Bulb on October 22, 2018

NOTE: Solemnities and feasts are listed at the end of this post. This part is not yet complete. If you are looking for commentaries on the Sunday readings in the Extraordinary Form go here.


Suggested Resources for the Gospel of Mark. The gospel primarily used in Year B.

Suggested Recourses on the Sunday Epistle Readings for Ordinary Time, Year B.


First Week of Advent.
Second Week of Advent.
Third Week of Advent.
Fourth Week of Advent.

Note: Traditionally Epiphany is celebrated on January 6. In the USA it is celebrated on the Sunday following January 6.

Dec. 25. Vigil Mass for the Solemnity of the Nativity of the Lord (Dec 24).
Dec. 25. Mass During the Night: The Nativity of the Lord (Midnight Mass).
Dec. 25. Mass at Dawn: The Nativity of the Lord.
Dec. 25. Mass During the Day: The Nativity of the Lord.

Sunday Within the Octave of Christmas (Feast of the Holy Family). If a Sunday does not fall between Dec. 26 and Dec 31 then the Feast of the Holy Family is celebrated on Dec. 30.

Dec. 26. The Feast of St Stephen, the Church’s First Martyr.
Dec. 27. The Feast of St John, Apostle and Evangelist.
Dec 28. Feast of the Holy Innocents, Martyrs.
Dec. 29. Fifth Day in the Octave of Christmas.
Dec. 30. Sixth Day in the Octave of Christmas. See next note.
!!! Dec 30. Feast of the Holy Family (Non-Sunday). If a Sunday does not fall between Dec 26-31 then the Feast of the Holy Family is celebrated on this date.
Jan 1. Solemnity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God.
Jan. 2. Memorial of St Basil the Great and St Gregory Nanzianzen, Bishops and Doctors of the Church.
Jan. 3. Christmas Weekday.
Jan . 4. Memorial St Elizabeth Ann Seton, Religious.
Jan. 5. Memorial of St John Nuemann, Bishop.
Jan. 6. Christmas Weekday. Traditionally this is Epiphany. In the USA the Epiphany is celebrated on the first Sunday after Jan 6. For commentary on the Epiphany readings see below, following Jan 8.
Jan. 7. Christmas Weekday. NOTE: in 2018 this date falls on the Sunday after Jan 6. IN the USA this Sunday is celebrated as the Epiphany. See the link for the Epiphany below, following Jan 8.
Jan 8.

!!! The Epiphany of the Lord.
Epiphany to the Baptism of the Lord.

Each week contains the beginning and ending Sundays (e.g., the 4th week contains Sundays 4 and 5). We are currently in daily cycle 1 and Sunday cycle B. The new Sunday cycle always begins on the First Sunday of Advent; and the daily cycle on the next day.

1st WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
2nd WEEK: Year 1Year 2.
3rd WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
4th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
5th WEEK: Year 1Year 2.
6th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
7th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
8th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
9th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
10th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
11th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
12th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
13th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
14th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
15th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
16th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
17th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
18th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
19th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
20th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
21st WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
22nd WEEK:  Year1Year 2.
23rd WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
24th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
25th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
26th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
27th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
28th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
29th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
30th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
31st WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
32nd WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
33rd WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.
34th WEEK:  Year 1Year 2.


Ash Wednesday Through Second Sunday of Lent.
Second Week of Lent.
Third Week of Lent.
Fourth Week of Lent.
Fifth Week of Lent.
!!! Holy Week.


Easter Sunday to Divine Mercy Sunday (Second Sunday of Easter).
Second Week of Easter.
Third Week of Easter.
Fourth Week of Easter.
Fifth Week of Easter.
Sixth Week of Easter. Includes Ascension Thursday.
Seventh Week of Easter. Includes Pentecost.

Some of these are also listed above (e.g., during the Christmas season).

December 8. Feast of the Immaculate Conception.

Dec 12. Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

Dec 24-25. Christmas: Solemnity of the Nativity of the Lord. 4 Masses below.

Dec 26. Feast of St Stephen the Proto-Martyr.

Dec 27. Feast of St John the Evangelist.

Dec 28. Feast of the Holy Innocents.

Jan 1. Solemnity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The Mother of God (Octave of Christmas).

Jan 6. Solemnity of the Epiphany.

Jan 25. Feast of the Conversion of St Paul.

Feb 2. Feast of the Presentation of the Lord.

Feb 22. Feast of the Chair of St Peter.

Mar 19. Feast of St Joseph, Husband of Mary.

Mar 25. Feast of the Annunciation.

Apr. 25. Feast of St Mark the Evangelist.

May 1. Feast of St Joseph the Worker.

May 3. Feast of Saints Philip and James, Apostles.

May 14. Feast of St Matthias, Apostle.

May 31. Feast of the Visitation.

Second Friday After Pentecost: Feast of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Year A.  Year B.  Year C.

Jun 24. Vigil and Mass of the Day. Feast of the Birth of St John the Baptist.

Jun 29. Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul, Apostles.

Jul 3. Feast of St Thomas the Apostle.

Jul 22. Feast of St Mary Magdalene.

Jul 25. Feast of St James the Elder, Apostle.

Aug 6. Feast of the Transfiguration of Our Lord, Year A.

Aug 10. Feast of St Lawrence the Deacon.

Aug 15. Vigil and Mass of the Day. Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Aug 24. Feast of St Bartholomew, Apostle.

Sept 8. Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Sept 14. Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross.

Sept 21. Feast of St Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist.

Sept 29. Feast of Saints Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, Archangels.

Oct 18. Feast of St Luke the Evangelist.

Oct 28. Feast of Saints Simon and Jude, Apostles.

Nov 1. Solemnity of All Saints.

Nov 2. The Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed.

Nov 9. Feast of the Dedication of the Lateran Basilica.

Nov 30. The Feast of St Andrew, Apostle.

Last Sunday of the Year: Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe. Always falls on last Sunday of the Year.

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Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Hebrews 5:1-6

Posted by Dim Bulb on October 19, 2021

This post opens with Fr. MacEvilly’s brief analysis of Hebrews chapter 5, followed by his commentary on the reading. Text in purple indicates his paraphrasing of the scripture he is commenting on.


 Having introduced the subject of Christ’s priesthood rather abruptly in the preceding chapter (Heb 4:14), the Apostle undertakes in this to show, from the distinguishing marks and qualities which characterised the Aaronic priesthood (for, it is to the Levitical priests, he refers in instituting this comparison), that Christ too was a priest, as possessing in a more excellent degree the qualities of the Aaronic priests. He first points out what these distinguishing qualities are (Heb 5:1–4), and next applies them to Christ. The first note or quality of a priest, viz., that he be a man, he forbears from applying to Christ, as requiring no application, it was a thing known to all. The second, viz., his offering gifts, &c., he defers for a fuller exposition, in a subsequent part of the Epistle. He treats of the two remaining notes, and applies them to Christ, commencing with the last He shows that Christ had as divine a call to the priesthood, as had Aaron or his sons (Heb 5:5-6).

He then applies to him the third mark, viz., his capability of compassionating sinners, and referring to his infirmities and sufferings during his mortal life, he shows that he had an experimental knowledge of the arduous nature of obedience, and of the difficult of avoiding sin (Heb 5:7-8). And having attained consummate glory by suffering, he became to all his true followers, the cause of eternal glory, by the merits of his passion, which, as High Priest, he offered up in sacrifice for us, having been declared by his Father, a pontiff, according to the order of Melchisedech (Heb 5:9-10).

Although he has much to say concerning this priesthood of Melchisedech, and its relation to Christ, he defers treating of it, until he first gives them further instruction in the principles of faith, which, notwithstanding the length of time they had been professing Christianity, they very much needed

Heb 5:1. For every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in the things that appertain to God, that he may offer up gifts and sacrifices for sins:

 (In order to establish the assertion made 4:14, &c.—viz., that Christ is our high priest, whom we should approach with confidence, it is merely required to show that he has the qualities and marks of a high priest, such as we know to be necessary for a high priest of the Levitical order). Every high priest, then (of the Levitical order), is taken from among men, and is also constituted by his office in behalf of men, to manage their affairs with God, and to act as their mediator with him. This duty he principally discharges by offering up in sacrifice the gifts voluntarily presented, as also those prescribed by law.

The first quality of a priest is to “be taken from among men,” i.e., to possess human nature. The second is derived from his office, which is to manage the affairs of men, which regard God. And the duty of this office is principally discharged in offering up sacrifice for men. “Gifts,” voluntary oblations, presented by the people. “Sacrifices,” those enjoined by law.

 Heb 5:2. Who can have compassion on them that are ignorant and that err: because he himself also is compassed with infirmity.

He should also be possessed of a merciful, kind disposition to sympathize with and compassionate sinners of every description, bearing in mind that he himself is surrounded with the infirmities of our sinful nature. 

The third, is to have a merciful, kind disposition to sympathize with sinners The Greek for “have compassion,” μετριοπαθειν, means, to be possessed of a capability of sympathizing with a degree of moderation, which would enable him to observe a dignified mean between harsh severity on the one hand, and misplaced clemency on the other. The latter defect is frequently abused by the perverse, in the further commission of sin. “Ignorant and err,” extend to all sinners, even those who commit sins that are not the result of ignorance; for, they too are fit objects of compassion. “Because he himself is surrounded with infirmities.” The Apostle refers to the infirmities of sin, as appears from the following verse. This note applies to Christ only as far as the sanctity and perfection of his nature will permit. Hence, it will apply to him, so far as regards the common infirmities and possibility of human nature, which he felt, but not so far as sin is concerned; nor is this required, because the liability to sin is a defect in a priest; and hence, follows the perfection of Christ’s priesthood; since, he possesses all the good qualities, without any of the defects of other priests.

  Heb 5:3. And therefore he ought, as for the people, so also for himself, to offer for sins.

And it is because of this sinful infirmity with which every priest is surrounded, that the Levitical priest is bound by the Law of Moses (Leviticus 4:3) to offer up sacrifice for his own sins, as well as for those of the people. 

And it is on account of this sinful infirmity to which every priest is subject, that the Mosaic Law (Leviticus 4:3) prescribes, &c. 

Heb 5:4Neither doth any man take the honour to himself, but he that is called by God, as Aaron was.

Again, no legitimate priest ever arrogates to himself, unauthorized, the honour of the priesthood; he alone is a true and legitimate priest who is called by God, as was Aaron

The fourth mark or character is a divine vocation, like that of Aaron and his successors. Aaron was called by God, and ordered to be consecrated (Levit. 8) with the sacerdotal succession, secured to his family. Hence, the necessity of a vocation for the ecclesiastical state, as well as of ordination in the Church. Hence, schismatics and heretics cannot, without sin, perform ecclesiastical functions, not being deputed by God or his Church. Their call is the rebellious usurpation of Core, Dathan, and Abiron, to whom, as they are likened in ministering, so shall they be also in punishment, rather than the divine call of Aaron and his successors transferred to and perpetuated in the holy, Catholic Church.

Heb 5:5. So Christ also did not glorify himself, that he might be made a high priest: but he that said unto him: Thou art my Son: this day have I begotten thee.

Hence it was, that Christ did not take to himself the glorious quality of high priest; it was bestowed on him by his heavenly Father; for, it was the same who addressed him (Psalm 2) as his natural son—“Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee;” (see commentary below verse 6).

Heb 5:6. As he saith also in another place: Thou art a priest for ever, according to the order of Melchisedech.  

That addressed to him also, as we find in another passage (Psalm, 110), these words—“Thou art a priest for ever, according to the order of Melchisedech;” and thus conferred on him the sacerdotal dignity

 (Comments on 5-6). He now applies these marks to Christ. He passes over the first altogether, it being evident that Christ was a man, and, therefore, needed no application. The application of the second he reserves for chapters 7, 8, 9, of this Epistle; the other two he here applies, commencing with the fourth. Christ did not arrogate to himself, unauthorized and uncommissioned, the glory of the priesthood. He was called to it by his Father. For, it was the same who said to him, “Thou art my Son,” &c., that also said, as we find it in another place, “Thou art a priest,” &c., and by the very fact of saying it, constituted him such. Christ, then, had the fourth mark of a true priest, viz., a vocation from God. And instead of saying, God the Father, said to him, “Thou art a priest,” &c., the Apostle says, “He who said to him, thou art my son,” &c., also said, “Thou art a priest,” &c., to insinuate the superiority of Christ, as priest and Son of God at the same time, over Aaron or any other.

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St Robert Bellarmine’s Commentary on Psalm 100

Posted by Dim Bulb on August 29, 2021

Psalm 100
The prophet exhorteth all by his example, to follow mercy and justice

Ps 100:1 Mercy and judgment I will sing to thee, O Lord: I will sing,

This is a sort of preface to the Psalm, in which David gives us to understand that he is about to sing of the mercy and judgment of God, for which he has many reasons; first, that all may understand that his own good works proceed from the mercy of God, and will be crowned hereafter by the judgment of God. Secondly, to admonish princes that nothing pleases God so much as mercy and judgment; and, therefore, that it behoved them to be merciful without being unjust, to be just without being cruel. Thirdly, that all men should hope in God’s mercy, while they dread his judgment; but to hope, without presuming, and to fear, without despairing. He names mercy first, for the present life is that of mercy, the future that of judgment; so that no one need be surprised if, for the present, “he makes his sun to rise upon the good and the bad, and raineth upon the just and the unjust.”

Ps 100:2 And I will understand in the unspotted way, when thou shalt come to me. I walked in the innocence of my heart, in the midst of my house.

I will consider on, reflect, and think upon the perfect and unspotted way, that consists in mercy and judgment; for “all the ways of the Lord are mercy and truth.” A similar expression occurs in Psalm 40, Blessed is he that understandeth concerning the needy and the poor;” which means, he considers the misery of the poor with a view of relieving them; thus also, “I will understand in the unspotted way” means, I will consider it attentively, with the view of walking in it. That I never will be able to do of myself, by my own strength, but by the help of your grace, “when you shall come to me,” to enlighten, teach, inflame, and move me. “I walked in the innocence of my heart, in the midst of my house.” He now commences relating his mode of life, as worthy of imitation both by his successors and by his subjects; for it is for this purpose that the king sits on an elevated seat, “that, like a candle placed on a candlestick, he may shine unto all.” He first explains his position with himself and with God; next, with others, and in the eyes of his people. “I walked in the innocence of my heart;” I led or walked the life of this world, preserving my innocence most completely; thinking of nothing, seeking nothing, delighting in nothing but what was good; most careful in keeping my heart from being polluted by sinful thoughts or desires; for I knew the heart to be the source of life and of death. Hence his son Solomon, educated by such a father, afterwards wrote, “With all watchfulness keep thy heart, because life issueth out from it.”—“In the midst of my house.” Where there was no one to censure me; for many will conduct themselves with great gravity and decorum in the streets or market place, while they revel in all manner of licentiousness in their houses or their chambers, especially in the chambers of their hearts; while David kept his innocence unstained, not only in his house, but also in his heart.

Ps 100:3 I will not set before my eyes any unjust thing: I hated the workers of iniquities.

What he said of the innocence of his heart he now says of his eyes and of his hands. “I did not set before my eyes any unjust thing;” I turned away the eyes of my mind as well as of my body from all injustice, whether in deciding between my subjects or in the distribution of honors and promotions, or in bargains and contracts; and furthermore, from all sinful objects, illicit sports, impure revels, and from all manner of objects that could possibly defile the soul. “I hated the workers of iniquity.” I not only turned away my eyes from forbidden objects, and did no manner of iniquity, but I even hated all those guilty of it; and thus, got a thorough detestation of iniquity itself.

Ps 100:4 The perverse heart did not cleave to me: and the malignant, that turned aside from me, I would not know.

After telling his position in regard of himself, he now tells us how he stood in regard of others; and such was his position that the wicked would not even dare to approach him. Great must be the virtue of anyone, when others have such an opinion of his sanctity, that the wicked shrink from even appearing in his presence. Such should all princes and prelates be, who are set up by God to give good example to others. “The perverse heart did not cleave to me.” The ill disposed avoided me, “and the malignant, that hath turned aside from me, I would not know.” When the wicked would cut and fly from me, I took no trouble about them and sought not their acquaintance.

Ps 100:5 The man that in private detracted his neighbour, him did I persecute. With him that had a proud eye, and an unsatiable heart, I would not eat.

Another royal virtue, in which mercy and judgment are most conspicuous, is now touched upon. For kings have power to punish the wicked; and many, more through hatred of their neighbor than from a love of justice, bring charges against those they wish to injure and seek to oppress them by falsehood and calumny; and King David, in his wisdom and justice, most severely punished such unjust complainants, and thus exercised his mercy on the unjustly accused and his justice on the false accusers. “The man that in private detracted his neighbor,” when anyone falsely accused his innocent neighbor, and in private would take from him his character with me, I not only gave no ear to him but I punished him severely. “Him did I persecute.”—“With him that had a proud eye and unsatiable heart I would not eat.” David had a thorough hatred not only of detractors, but of the proud and the avaricious, and justly. For no greater misfortune can befall a people than to have the king’s ministers proud or avaricious. They abuse their power in satisfying their avarice, to the great injury of those under them. The meaning, then, is, I never admitted to my table, or used the slightest familiarity with him “that had a proud eye,” one who by his looks and his bearing betrayed his pride: “and an unsatiable heart,” to whose avarice and cupidity there were no bounds. That the king’s principal ministers were accustomed to sit at the same table with him may be seen in 1 Kings 20, where David, who was then general, and even Abner, who was a subaltern officer, sat at table with Saul the king.

Ps 100:6 My eyes were upon the faithful of the earth, to sit with me: the man that walked in the perfect way, he served me.

Having shut out detractors, the proud, and the avaricious from his friendship and from his service, David now adds that he was wont to relent the faithful and the upright, two qualities absolutely necessary in good ministers, to be faithful to their master, and upright in everything that regarded their own and their neighbor’s salvation. It often happens that ministers are kept in the employment of their sovereigns, and are much regarded by them by reason of their being so faithful to them, no matter how depraved and abandoned they may be in other respects, or how much harm they may be doing to themselves and to others through their bad example: but holy David’s ministers should be not only faithful to him, but unstained and unblemished, and like himself in every respect. He, therefore, says, “My eyes were upon the faithful of the earth.” I looked about and sought for the faithful; or I looked with an eye of favor on those whom I knew to be faithful, and selected them; “to sit with me,” at my table, as so many friends and companions. “The man that walked with me in the perfect way, he served me.” And furthermore, if there was any other subject or citizen however unknown to or unacquainted with me, provided he bore a good character, and led an irreproachable life, he was adopted as my prime minister.

Ps 100:7 He that worketh pride shall not dwell in the midst of my house: he that speaketh unjust things did not prosper before my eyes.

Having expressed his horror of those who displayed their arrogance by the pride of their eyes, he now declares his disgust with those whose actions savored of pride; that is, with those who proudly oppressed their neighbor. And as he previously reprehended those who secretly detracted their neighbor, he now censures and excludes from his company all those who have recourse to lies, in order to deceive any manner of people. “He that worketh pride,” whose actions savor of pride, who proudly insults or oppresses others, “shall not dwell in the midst of my house,” shall not be reckoned among my friends or domestics. “He that speaketh unjust things,” lies, by which he deceives others in business transactions, or in anything else, “did not prosper before my eyes;” did not please me, and therefore, got no grace from me to make him prosper.

Ps 100:8 In the morning I put to death all the wicked of the land: that I might cut off all the workers of iniquity from the city of the Lord.

He concludes the Psalm by showing the amount of his zeal in purging the city of the Lord, therein dealing mercifully with the good, who had been hitherto crushed and oppressed by the wicked, and inflicting condign punishment from the latter for their oppressions. “In the mornings” speedily, quickly, before vice could have taken root; “I put to death all the wicked in the land,” all those who deserved death, and whose life could not be spared without danger to the innocent. And that was done by me in order “that I might cut off all the workers of iniquity,” to restore peace and tranquillity to the inhabitants of God’s holy city, by weeding out all the disturbers therein. All the Psalm, though spoken by David in his own person, is more applicable to Christ, especially this last verse; for David did all in him lay to banish all bad members from the city of the Lord, but he did not succeed, and never could succeed therein; but Christ, in the morning of the world to come, will really and truly cut off and scatter all the workers of iniquity, and thenceforward the holy city of the heavenly Jerusalem will be what its name implies, a vision of peace.

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St Robert Bellarmine’s Commentary on Psalm 52

Posted by Dim Bulb on August 29, 2021

Psalm 52
David condemns the wickedness of Doeg, and foretells his destruction

Explanation of the Psalm

Ps 52:1 Why dost thou glory in malice, thou that art mighty in iniquity?

1 Cicero, in his oration against Catiline, thus commences, “How long, Catiline, will you trifle with our patience?” and in the same style David commences with a similar interrogation, for the purpose of sharpening his rebuke. “Why dost thou glory in malice, thou that art mighty in iniquity?” Doeg, the Idumean, boasted that by his accusations he had ruined a priest of the Lord, and his entire family; for when Saul heard from Doeg that David had been hospitably received by Achimelech the priest, he burst into such a rage, that he not only ordered Doeg to put Achimelech to death, but also eighty-five other priests that were along with him; he then sacked their city, slaying men and women, babes and sucklings, nay, even the sheep, cows, and asses. See what a torrent of evil flowed from the calumny; so that he justly deserved to be styled “Mighty in iniquity.”

Ps 52:2 All the day long thy tongue hath devised injustice: as a sharp razor, thou hast wrought deceit. 

2 He draws a highly wrought picture of Doeg’s false information, first saying that it was not a sudden, but a long premeditated information. “All the day long thy tongue hath devised injustice.” You were constantly turning in your mind how to frame the false accusation, and, at length, when the opportunity offered, your tongue brought forth what it had been hatching for such a length of time; for, though thoughts are produced by the mind, David poetically attributes them to the tongue, as if the tongue was so radically bad in itself, that, though apparently silent, it was, in thought, speaking to itself. He then adds that the thing was put into execution with as much speed as a sharp razor would cut; elegantly contrasting the delay in forming the resolution with the celerity of putting it into execution; and, in fact, he lost very little time, when he got the opportunity, of carrying out what he had so long been hatching; for, in a very few words, he persuaded Saul that Achimelech the priest had entered into a conspiracy with David, which was a grievous deceit and imposition; and he, therefore, says, “As a sharp razor, thou hast wrought deceit;” that is, you deceived Saul, just as easily as a sharp razor cuts through the hair.

Ps 52:3 Thou hast loved malice more than goodness: and iniquity rather than to speak righteousness. 

3 He tells us the source of that calumnious accusation, and says that it did not proceed from ignorance or accident, but from the perversity of the man; who always preferred evil to good, and lies to truth. “Thou hast loved malice more than goodness;” you were always more pleased to injure than to serve your neighbor; “and iniquity rather than to speak righteously,” to tell lies rather than truth. Observe, that instead of opposing falsehood to “speaking righteously,” he opposes “iniquity” to it, insinuating thereby, that Doeg’s falsehood was not one simply so, or a mere lie; it was more, because it caused the death of Achimelech, and was thus an “iniquity.”

Ps 52:4 Thou hast loved all the words of ruin, O deceitful tongue. 

4 He assigns further reason for calling Doeg’s conduct a lie and an iniquity, and says it was a truly fatal, pernicious falsehood, causing, as it did, the ruin of so many innocent people. “Thou hast loved all the words of ruin;” all the language by which you could hurry innocent people headlong to their ruin and perdition; and it appears from the first book of Kings, that Doeg’s lies caused the destruction of an entire City. “O deceitful tongue”—of Doeg.

Ps 52:5 Therefore will God destroy thee for ever: he will pluck thee out, and remove thee from thy dwelling place: and thy root out of the land of the living.

5 He predicts that Doeg’s sin will not go unpunished, but that everlasting ruin is in store for him, in return for the temporal ruin of the priests, of which he was the cause. “Therefore will God destroy thee forever.” For this your sin God will utterly destroy you, not only in this world, but in the next; so that you shall be ruined for eternity, left absolutely desolate in this world, and damned forever in the world to come; such being the just retribution of the wicked, who, in seeking to injure others, injure themselves forever. He then explains in particular what he had laid down in general, saying, “He will pluck thee out.” The first stage of your punishment will be your banishment, the loss of your home, property, and country, sending you abroad an exile and a wanderer; “And thy root out of the land of the living,” will eradicate you and all your posterity from the earth; for children are like roots, shot out by the parents, which afterwardssupport and nourish him in turn.

Ps 52:6 The just shall see and fear, and shall laugh at him, and say:
Ps 52:7 Behold the man that made not God his helper: But trusted in the abundance of his riches: and prevailed in his vanity.

6–7 Many will profit and be instructed by the punishment of the wicked informer. “The just shall see and fear;” just and holy people will consider his case, and be horrified; “And shall laugh at him, and say: Behold the man who made not God his helper, but trusted in the abundance of his riches;” will laugh at him for having acted most foolishly, for not putting his trust in God, who is all powerful, instead of the frail riches of this world, which are so easily lost. “And prevailed in his vanity;” will jeer him for having endeavored to advance by fraud and lies, instead of true and solid virtue. The expression “prevailed,” does not imply that he really did prevail, but that he thought he might prevail; and, though he may seem to do so for a time, the end will prove that he had to yield, instead of prevailing; “When the just shall stand in great constancy against those who hemmed them in,” Wisdom 5.

Ps 52:8 But I, as a fruitful olive tree in the house of God, have hoped in the mercy of God for ever, yea for ever and ever. 

8 He concludes the Psalm by showing that he has taken quite a different path; for I will not be plucked up, nor rooted out as a withered tree, like Doeg; but I will send down my roots deeper and deeper, like “A fruitful olive tree,” always in bloom, always bearing fruit; and, being such, I have, consequently, “hoped in the mercy of God forever;” hoped that God would assist me forever, and to eternity. Observe the contrast he draws between himself and Doeg, the Idumean, comparing him to a dry log, and himself to a fruitful olive tree; he predicts that Doeg will be rooted out of the land, while himself will be rooted in the house of God. Doeg put his trust in his own riches; David in God’s mercy.

Ps 52:9 I will praise thee for ever, because thou hast done it: and I will wait on thy name, for it is good in the sight of thy saints. 

9 He returns thanks for a thing to happen, as if it had actually been done; for the future, as regards God and the prophets, is a matter of certainty, of the past. “I will praise thee forever;” I will always praise thee, “because thou hast done it;” have come to the determination of confounding him that trusteth in his riches, and consoling and comforting him that hopeth in thee. “And I will wait on thy name;” I will always hope in thee; such is the meaning of “Wait on thee;” and the name of God is used here for God himself. “For it is good in the sight of thy saints.” I will justly hope in your name, for your name is most sweet to the saints who have tasted of his sweetness.

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Catechism References to the Eucharist

Posted by Dim Bulb on August 7, 2021

Someday I may get ambitious and provide all the links. For now all I can do is provide a link (in a new tab) to the catechism search engine. Just type into the “search the catechism” box the reference number(s) you want to read. Go Here.

Eucharist, 1322–1419

as an act of thanksgiving, 1359
as a memorial, 1357, 1362
as presence, 1373–75
as sacrifice, 1362–72
as source and summit of Church life, 1324
See also Consecration; Sacrament(s); Transubstantiation

effects of the Eucharist

cleanses and separates us from sin, 1393–95, 1436, 1846
commits us to the poor, 1397
communicates the mystery of the communion of the Holy Trinity, 950, 2845
establishes the community of believers, 805, 1396, 2637
as a foretaste of the future life, 1000, 1326, 1402–05, 1419
as growth in Christian life, 1392, 1397, 1644
as an increase of the grace received in Baptism, 1392
as the source of conversion and penance, 1436
as spiritual food, 1212, 1275, 1436, 2837
transforms man through Christ, 1074
unites with Christ, 790, 1003, 1391
unites Christians, 1398
unites with the heavenly liturgy, 1370
we participate in Christ’s sacrifice, 1322

Eucharistic celebration

commanded by Jesus, 1341–44, 1356
elements in the Mass
anaphora, 1352–54
collection, 1351
communion, 1355, 1382, 1570
epiclesis, 1105, 1353
fundamental structures, 1346
gathering of the Christian faithful, 1348
Liturgy of the Word, 1349
presentation of the gifts, 1350

Eucharistic communion

access to Eucharist prohibited, 1650
first Holy Communion, 1244
frequency of, 1388–89
minister of, 1411
necessary preparation for receiving, 1385–87
requirements for receiving, 1355, 1415
sacrilege against, 2120
under two species, 1390

Eucharistic signs

altar, 1383
bread and wine, 1333–35

Liturgy of the Word because of the impossibility of celebrating the
Eucharist, 2183
necessity of the Eucharist and receiving Communion, 1384
participation in, 2042, 2181–82
place for celebration of, 1180–81
places reserved for, 1181, 1379
Sunday, 2177, 2181
and the unity of Christians, 838, 1398–1401

history of the Eucharist

ancient celebration of the Lord’s Day, 1342–43, 2178
Mass of all ages, 1345
origins of the Eucharistic celebration, 2176
prefigurings of the Eucharist, 1094, 1335
structure of the Eucharistic celebration preserved throughout the centuries, 1346

identity of the Eucharist

act of thanksgiving and praise to the Father, 1358–61
communion of the Lord’s body and blood, 1097, 1382
memorial of Christ’s sacrifice, 611, 1337, 1357–58, 1362–72, 1382
memorial of the New Covenant, 1621
mystery of Christ’s action, 2718
presence of Christ, 1357–58
presence of the coming Kingdom, 1405, 2861

sacrament of

Christian initiation, 1212, 1533
communion, 1382, 1395
Redemption, 1846
sacraments, 1169, 1211

source of charity, 864, 1395
source and summit of Christian life, 1324–27

institution of the Eucharist

“Do this in memory of me,” 1341–44
Jesus and, 1337–40
purposes of, 610, 1341

minister of the celebration of the Eucharist. See Bishop; Priest

names of the Eucharist

the Breaking of Bread, 1329
Daily bread, 2837
the Eucharist, 1328
the Eucharistic assembly, 1329
Holy Communion, 1331
the holy and Divine Liturgy, 1330
Holy Mass, 1332
the Holy Sacrifice, 1330
the Lord’s Supper, 1329
Memorial of the Lord’s Passion and Resurrection, 1330
the Most Blessed sacrament, 1330
the sacrament of sacraments, 1169, 1211
the sacrifice of the Mass, 1330
the sacrifice of praise, 2643

presence of Christ in the Eucharist

enduring Eucharistic presence of Christ, 1377
in the Eucharistic assembly, 1348
in the Eucharistic species, 1373
faith in Christ, 1381
in the Liturgy of the Word, 1088, 1349
in the priest, 1348
significance of, 1380
transubstantiation of Christ declared by the Tridentine Council, 1376
true and mysterious, 1357, 1373–77
true, real, and substantial, 1374
veiled presence of Christ in the Eucharist, 1404
worship of latria and the adoration of, 1378–79

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Council of Trent, Session XIII, Chapter 8: On the Use of the Admirable Sacrament

Posted by Dim Bulb on August 7, 2021

Now as regards the use, our Fathers have rightly and wisely distinguished three ways of receiving this holy sacrament. For they have taught that some receive it sacramentally only, to wit, sinners: others spiritually only, those, to wit, who eating in desire that heavenly bread which is set before them, are, by the lively faith which worketh by love,[25] made sensible of the fruit and utility thereof: whereas the third receive it both sacramentally and spiritually; and these are they who so prove and prepare themselves beforehand, that they approach this divine table clothed with the wedding garment.[26] Now as to the reception of the sacrament, it was always the custom in the Church of God, that laymen should receive the communion from the priests; but that the priests when celebrating should communicate themselves; which custom, as coming down from an apostolical tradition, ought with justice and reason to be retained. And finally, this holy synod with fatherly affection admonishes, exhorts, entreats, and beseeches, by the bowels of the mercy of our God, that all and each of those who are reckoned under the Christian name, would now at length join and agree in this sign of unity, in this bond of charity, in this symbol of concord; and that, mindful of the so great majesty, and the so exceeding love of our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave unto us His own beloved soul as the price of our salvation, and gave unto us His own flesh to eat, they would believe and venerate these sacred mysteries of His body and blood with such constancy and firmness of faith, with such devotion of soul, with such piety and worship, as to be able to receive frequently that supersubstantial bread, and that it may be to them truly the life of the soul, and the perpetual health of their mind; that, by the strength thereof, being invigorated, they may, after the journeying of this miserable pilgrimage, be able to arrive at their heavenly country, to eat, without any veil, that same bread of angels which they now eat under the sacred veils. (source)

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Catechism of the Council of Trent, Question LII~The Eucharist as an approach to glory

Posted by Dim Bulb on August 7, 2021

In what way an Approach to Eternal Glory is opened by this Sacrament

Finally, to comprise all the advantages and blessings of this sacrament in one word, it must be taught that the holy Eucharist is most efficacious towards the attainment of eternal glory; for it is written, Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day; that is to say, by the grace of this sacrament men enjoy the greatest peace and tranquillity of conscience during this life; and, when the hour of departing from this world shall have arrived, they, like another Elias, who in the strength of the cake baked on the hearth, walked to Horeb, the mount of God, invigorated by the strengthening influence of this [heavenly food], will ascend to unfading glory and never ending bliss.
All these matters must be most fully expounded to the faithful by the pastors, if they but dilate on the sixth chapter of St. John, in which are developed the manifold effects of this sacrament; or if, glancing at the admirable actions of Christ our Lord, they show that if they who received him beneath their roof during his mortal life, or were restored to health by touching his vesture, or the hem of his garment,u were justly and deservedly deemed most blessed, how much more fortunate and happy we, into whose soul, resplendent as he is with unfading glory, he disdains not to enter, to heal all its wounds, to adorn it with his choicest gifts, and unite it to himself!

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Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Ephesians 4:30-5:2

Posted by Dim Bulb on August 7, 2021

Note: Besides commentary on 4:30-5:2 this post contains Fr. MacEvilly’s summary analysis of both chapters 4 and 5 to help provide context.

Scripture links are to the Douay Rheims translation

In this chapter, the Apostle commences the moral part of the Epistle. He inculcates union and concord, and in order to persuade the Ephesians to attend to his admonitions in this matter, he reminds them of his sufferings on their account. Furthermore, with a view to secure this necessary and important branch of concord and union, he recounts the several relations of unity in which they were already identified (Eph 4:1–7).

Seeing that the unequal distribution of spiritual gifts might be an obstacle to this union of soul, the Apostle obviates this by showing, that these gifts were bestowed not according to the merits of those favoured with them, but gratuitously, according to the will of Christ (Eph 4:7). This he shows from Psalm 68.—and turning aside from his subject, he proves from the prophetic quotation the divinity and eternal generation of Christ against the heretics of the day (Eph 4:8–10).

Returning to the subject from which he had digressed at verse 8, he points out the different gifts and offices (Eph 4:12), their duration to the end of the world (Eph 4:13). He more clearly points out the ends to be obtained by the institution of the ministry in the Church, and the gifts conferred on her, which are unity of faith, and an increase of Christian virtue and knowledge (Eph 4:14-15). He illustrates this increase of Christian virtue in the mystical body of the Church, by the example of the natural increase of the human body (Eph 4:16).

Resuming the subject of exhortation with which he commenced (verse 1), he conjures them to lead lives different from those of the unconverted Gentiles, of whom he draws a most frightful picture. He represents their interior state or the dispositions of their souls, which comprise vanity of thought, blindness of intellect, obduracy of will (Eph 4:17-18). He next describes the exterior fruits of these corrupt passions of heart, their insatiable impurities of every description (Eph 4:19). The life of Christians is all contrary to this (Eph 4:20-21). A truly Christian conduct consists in two things—in putting off the old man, and putting on the new (Eph 4:22–24). He specifies a few of the deeds of the old man, which are, vices of the tongue (Eph 4:25), passions of the heart, especially those of the irascible appetite (Eph 4:26), deeds committed by the hands (Eph 4:27-28). He dwells on the vices of the tongue, and recommends the language of edification. He particularizes the faults of the tongue, and finally recommends the language of kindness and charity (Eph 4:29-32).

Text in purple indicate Fr. MacEvilly’s paraphrase of the text he is commenting on. Links are to the Douay Rheims translation.

Eph 4:30. And do not, by indulging in the vices already referred to, particularly those of the tongue, contristate the Holy Ghost, by banishing him from the abode of your heart, in which he wishes to dwell; by whom you have been sealed, in the abundant effusion of sanctifying grace, unto the day of the final resurrection, when, after your bodies shall have been glorified, and freed from all evils, you shall put on immortal glory.

The Holy Ghost is said to be “grieved” by being banished from our hearts, as a man is said to be saddened by being expelled from an abode in which he wished to dwell. “Sealed,” by the abundance of sanctifying grace, which is a spiritual seal of the beloved soul, by which it is marked out as belonging to God. The Apostle probably refers to the sacramental grace received in baptism and confirmation.—(See 2 Tim. 1:6). As, therefore, the seal of God is impressed on the soul, this seal should be inviolable, and should not be broken without the authority of him who impressed it. He, then, breaks and violates this seal, whoever he be, that utters obscene words, with lips that were holy and sanctified by divine grace. “Unto the day of redemption,” i.e., of the glorious resurrection of our bodies, when we shall be emancipated from the slavery of corruption.

Eph 4:31. Let all aversion and embittered feelings towards your neighbour, all angry excitement, all desires of revenge, all loud threatenings and brawling expression of inward rage, all injurious and insulting language, with every fault of this description, i.e., evil acts or dispositions towards your neighbour, be put away from you.

“Let all bitterness:” aversion, arising from our brooding over the provocation received, is the beginning of anger. “Anger,” that excited state of feeling resulting from the injuries we conceived to be inflicted on us. “Indignation,” that passionate, fixed desire of revenge. “Clamour,” all loud threatenings, &c. “Blasphemy,” is generally understood of language injurious to God, but it is also understood of injurious language used towards men. “With all malice,” regards all vices by which our neighbour is injured. These he omits enumerating, and comprehends under the general term “malice.”

Eph 4:32. But in order the more perfectly to subdue these evil propensities of our corrupt nature, practice the opposite virtues. Be courteous and obliging towards one another, have compassion for the troubles and miseries of each other, so as to share them by a kindly sympathy, pardoning and remitting to each other the injuries you may have mutually to sustain, after the example of God, who has pardoned us our manifold sins and injuries offered him, through the merits of his Son, Christ.

The best and most secure way of overcoming these evil propensities of nature is, to practise the opposite virtues. There is scarcely a passion more deeply rooted in our corrupt nature, and harder to eradicate, than the desire of retaliating and taking vengeance on our enemies, on those who have injured and are still disposed to injure us. But eradicate it, overcome it we must, if we wish to enter the kingdom of heaven, which suffers violence, and which only the violent can bear away. It is on condition that we forgive our enemies, that God forgives us. We can achieve the victory over this dreadful passion, to the gratification of which our corrupt nature so strongly urges us, by fervent prayer to God, who commands nothing above our strength, nothing which he will not grant us grace, if fervently besought for it, to accomplish. We can to this end also employ certain considerations. First—The example of God pardoning his enemies, “that you may be like your Father who is in heaven,” &c. What sins and outrages has he not remitted to us? He, the Creator, the Benefactor, pardoning his ungrateful creatures. Second—The example of the Son of God. How he wished to reclaim his apostate disciple, “friend, why camest thou hither?” On the cross he prays for his blasphemous persecutors, “Father, forgive them,” &c. Third—The example of the saints of old. Among the rest, David refused to stretch forth his hand against Saul, his unrelenting and unjust persecutor, and after his death, punished the Amalecite who said he slew him, and called on the rains and dews of heaven not to fall on the mountains of Gilboe, where he and his son had been slain. Fourth—Gratitude to God for his many benefits, for whose sake principally, and not for the sake of an ungrateful creature, we are called on to pardon our enemy. Fifth—The consideration of the wretched state of our enemy, exposed to eternal torments, the miserable condition of his soul who wishes to injure us. This should soften us into pity rather than vengeance. Sixth—The reward of this forgiveness, and self-victory, viz., peace of soul, tranquillity of conscience, which is but the earnest of future glory, the final reward which God has in store for those who make sacrifices for his sake. God is never outdone in generosity. No one ever made sacrifices for Him that did not receive an hundred-fold reward. Of this we have a striking example in the life and conversion of St. John Gualbert, after pardoning a mortal enemy.—(See his Life, July 12.)


In this chapter, the Apostle exhorts the Ephesians to love one another after the example of God (Eph 4:32), and also after the example of Christ, who sacrificed himself for us (Eph 5:1-2). He exhorts them to shun all impurity both in word and deed, because wholly unsuited to the exalted state of sanctity to which they were called, and because it provokes the punishment of exclusion from God’s eternal inheritance (Eph 5:3-5). He cautions them against listening to the false teachings of some men on this head (Eph 5:6). He dissuades them from all participation whatsoever, in the wicked conduct of their Pagan neighbours. He, on the contrary, adduces several motives of persuasion, to encourage them to set forth, by the pure and bright contrast of their holy lives, in darker and more hideous colours, the wicked deeds of the others (Eph 6:7–15).

He exhorts them to act with wise caution and circumspection in their intercourse with the Pagans, considering the perilous nature of the days upon which they had fallen (Eph 5:15–18). He cautions them against excessive indulgence in wine, and exhorts them to seek consolation from a different source—viz., the Spirit of God; and he points out how, in their different meetings, they are to express their joy in the Holy Ghost, by singing psalms, and other spiritual songs, and by expressing their thankfulness to God (Eph 5:19-20).

He next lays down a general principle of Christian policy, relative to the duties of subjection and subordination, in the different states of life (Eph 5:21). Descending to particulars, he devotes the remainder of this chapter to the instruction of those engaged in the marriage state, as to the duties they mutually owe each other. In this state, the woman is the party on whom the duty of obedience devolves. He shows the relation of subjection which she bears her husband, to be similar to that which the Church bears to Christ; and hence, she should be subject to him, as the Church is to Christ (Eph 5:22–24), He, on the other hand, adduces the same analogy of relation, as a reason why husbands should love their wives. They hold in their regard a relation of headship, similar to that which Christ holds in regard to the Church (Eph 5:25–27). Another reason for this love is founded on the nature of the conjugal union between man and wife (Eph 5:28-29). He, next, points out the ground of the comparison of the man and wife with Christ and his Church, by showing that the Church is a part of Christ, and for this purpose he quotes in a mystical sense, the passage in Genesis, where reference is made to the creation of the woman (Eph 5:30). He quotes more largely from the passage in Genesis, in order to develop more fully the motive referred to (in verse 28), and shows the union between man and wife to be a type of the indissoluble and mystic union between Christ and his Church (Eph 5:31-32). He applies to the Ephesians the motives already adduced, and calls upon husbands and wives to attend to them (Eph 5:33).


Eph 5:1. Since, therefore, God hath pardoned you in Christ, be ye imitators of God, as children are wont to imitate the parents, by whom they are most tenderly loved.

“Be ye, therefore, followers of God.” In Greek, μιμηται, “imitators of God.” These words are immediately connected with the last verse of the preceding chapter. “As most dear children,” i.e., as children greatly beloved by God.

Eph 5:2. And exercise the duty of fraternal charity in all its parts, both in pardoning injuries and doing good so far as to sacrifice your lives, if necessary, for the good of our neighbour, after the example of Christ, who delivered himself up for our redemption, a most perfect victim—corresponding with all the ends, and comprising within itself all the properties, of the ancient offerings—and most acceptable with God.

“And walk in love.” This is a point in which we are called upon to imitate God. There are many other things in which we cannot imitate him, but only admire and adore him. “As Christ also hath loved us and delivered himself for us.” The Apostle proposes the example of our Redeemer as a second motive to exercise fraternal charity; and he leaves it to be inferred, that we also, like him, should love one another, Even at the sacrifice of life, if necessary; for, he died for us when we were his enemies by sin. “Since he hath laid down his life for us, so should we also lay down our live for our brethren.”—(1 John, chap 3)

“And delivered himself for us.” Every word has force. Who delivered himself?—God. For whom? For us, his creatures and enemies by sin. To what did he deliver himself? To a death of unparalleled ignominy and tortures. “Ut servum redimeres, Filium tradidisti?”

“An oblation and a sacrifice.” These words mean that he offered himself as a most perfect victim, comprising all the qualities of victims, bloody or unbloody, and corresponding to all the ends of the ancient sacrifices, whether holocaust, peace offering, sin offering, &c.

“For an odour of sweetness,” or, most sweet odour, denotes its acceptance with God. The phrase is frequently employed in reference to the acceptability of the ancient sacrifices, as in Genesis, and elsewhere.


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Father Callan’s Commentary on Ephesians 4:30-5:2

Posted by Dim Bulb on August 7, 2021

Note: In addition to the notes on 4:30-5:2 this post also contains summaries to help provide context.

A Summary of Ephesians 4:25-6:9

The Apostle is now going to show In a practical way just what it means for Christians to have put on the new man; that is, he is going to apply more in detail to Christian life and conduct the principles he has laid down. He will treat first of precepts that are pertinent to all Christians, to Christian society in general (Eph 4:25—5:21), and then of precepts that regard particular members of the Christian family, that regulate the Christian home (Eph 5:22—6:9). In the remaining verses of the present Chapter he speaks of some of the principal vices which the mutual charity of Christians forbids, and of some of the virtues which that same charity enjoins upon the members of the Church. Please note that Eph 4:25-32 (the subject of this post) forms a unit within 4:25-6:9 but for some reason Fr. Callan gives no independent summary of it.

Eph 4:30. And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God: whereby you were sealed unto the day of redemption.

Another reason for avoiding foul speech is that the Holy Ghost may not be grieved, “whereby” (i.e., in whom and by whom) both the speaker and the hearer of polluting speech “were sealed” at the time of their conversion, when they received the Sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation, both of which were usually conferred together in the early Church.

Unto the day of redemption, i.e., until the general resurrection, when we shall take full possession of our redemption. See on Eph 1:14.

Eph 4:31. Let all bitterness, and anger, and indignation, and clamor, and blasphemy, be put away from you, with all malice.

In this final prohibition St. Paul strikes at the root of the different vices he has been enumerating: this root is “malice,” of which those other sins were the manifestations.

Bitterness is an aversion arising from prolonged anger; it is akin to sulkiness.

Anger is a transient outburst of passion, whereas indignation, or wrath, is a settled or chronic condition including the purpose of revenge.

Clamor, as here meant, is a violent and angry assertion of one’s real or supposed rights and wrongs.

Blasphemy is taken literally from the Greek, but it would be better to translate it in this passage by “reviling,” since there is question now of evil speech, not against God but against man.

Malice, i.e., malevolence or the desire to injure, is the root of the sins just mentioned. Compare the parallel passage in Col. 3:8.

Eph 4:32. And be ye kind one to another; merciful, forgiving one another, even as God hath forgiven you in Christ,

The Apostle has just given some of the sins by which charity is wounded; so now he will mention some of the opposite virtues by which charity is preserved and exercised, adding the motive for the practice of these virtues. He would have his readers be “kind” (i.e., sweet and courteous to one another), “merciful” (i.e., tenderhearted), “forgiving” (i.e., ready to pardon one another’s oflFences), and all this because “God hath forgiven” (or better, “did forgive”) them at the time of their conversion, “in Christ” (i.e., through the merits of Christ). See parallel passage in Col. 3:12-13.

A Summary of Ephesians 5:1-21

This Chapter continues the thought of the preceding Chapter, and Eph 5:1-21 Verse 1-2 here really belong at the end of Chapter 4, with which they are so intimately connected (specifically with Eph 4:17-32). The Apostle has just been saying that his readers, in forgiving one another, should imitate God who has pardoned them for the sake of Christ; and now he continues that thought, and makes the further plea that in their relations with one another they should imitate the charity of Christ who gave Himself as a sacrifice to God for us all.

Eph 5:1-21 here, apparently having in view pagan pleasures and festivities, contain five commands mainly for self-guidance regarding Christian love, light, wisdom, gladness and submission, as Eph 4:25-32, contained five prohibitions regarding others.

Eph 5:1. Be ye therefore followers of God, as most dear children;

God is our Father and we are His adopted children, and so we ought to imitate Him in forgiving others as He has forgiven us; the more we imitate our Father, the more we become like Him, and consequently the more we are loved by Him.

Therefore connects this verse with the preceding Chapter.

Eph 5:2. And walk in love, as Christ also loved us, and delivered himself for us, an oblation and a sacrifice to God for an odor of sweetness.

The example of our Lord is now given as a motive for the exercise of fraternal charity.

Walk in love, i.e., let charity be the animating and governing principle of your lives, after the example of Christ who out of love for us delivered Himself up to the death of the cross for our salvation.

Loved us. The versions read thus, but a number of Greek MSS. have: “Loved you.”

An oblation and a sacrifice. The first word is more general, the second more particular in meaning. The term “sacrifice” can also stand for a bloody or an unbloody offering, and certainly the former is not to be excluded here where the sacrifice of our Lord is in question. The purpose of St. Paul here is to show the completeness of our Lord’s sacrifice, as being the antitype of both the bloody and the unbloody sacrifice. Very probably the Apostle is alluding in this passage to Ps.40:7, which is Messianic, and which is explicitly cited in Heb. 10:5.

An odor of sweetness is a sacrificial phrase taken from the Old Testament (Gen. 8:21 ; Lev. 1:9, 13, 17, etc.), and it simply means that the sacrifice was pleasing and acceptable to God.

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Father Maas’ Commentary on Matthew 13:31-35

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 17, 2021

Mt 13:31. Another parable he proposed unto them, saying: The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took and sowed in his field.
Mt 13:32. Which is the least indeed of all seeds; but when it is grown up, it is greater than all herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come, and dwell in the branches thereof.

Another parable he proposed unto them.] 3. The mustard seed. Here our Lord begins to set forth the power of the kingdom manifested first by its great extension. This manifestation is calculated to console and reassure the apostles, who might have been discouraged by the foregoing predictions of coming evil. Here again the similitude lies between what occurs in the kingdom of heaven and the whole contents of the parable. The mustard-tree can hardly be the “salvadora persica,” which is rare in Palestine, but must refer to the garden plant [sinapis nigra] which in the fertile soil of the Holy Land reached the height of several feet, and exceeded all other garden plants [Barradas]; Maldonado, does not wish to insist on these minutiæ of the parable. The mustard seed is not the least of all seeds botanically, but it was so either practically in the Holy Land [cf. Schaff], or at least proverbially [Lightfoot, Hor. hebr. in 1.; Buxtorf, Lexic. chald. talmud. p. 822]. Our Lord describes in this passage the small and humble beginnings of the Messianic kingdom [cf. Ezech. 17:23]; we need not recall the particulars of Christ’s humility and poverty, and of the apostles’ lowly condition [cf. Chrysostom, Jerome, Thomas Aquinas, Cajetan, Jansenius]. What is said by some commentators [cf. Jansenius, Sylveira, Lapide] about the various medicinal properties of the mustard seed, or about the birds of heaven and the branches of the mustard-tree, hardly belongs to the genuine meaning of the parable, though it may be regarded as an accommodation of the passage.

Mt 13:33. Another parable he spoke to them: The kingdom of heaven is like to leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, until the whole was leavened.

Another parable he spoke to them.] 4. The leaven. Here our Lord shows the intensive efficacy of the kingdom, as he illustrated its extensive efficiency in the foregoing parable. The “three measures,” or three seahs, are equivalent to an ephah or bath, which is equal to 7 gals. and 4.5 pts. [ Ant. XI. iv. 5]. The number “three” has wonderfully exercised the ingenuity of commentators: it signifies “multitude” in general [Chrysostom, Euthymius, Thomas Aquinas, Cajetan]; or the law, the prophets, and the gospel [Hillary, Ambrose Chrysologos]; or the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost [Hillary]; or the Semites, Chamites, and Japhetites [Hillary]; or Asia, Africa, and Europe [Bruno, Faber Stapulensis, Jansenius, Lapide]; or the Jews, Samaritans, and Greeks [Euthymius]; or our reasonable, concupiscible, and irascible faculties, in other words, the spirit, the soul, and the flesh [Jerome, Bede Rabanus, Paschasius, Dionysius the Carthusian, Ambrose]; or the moral, intellectual, and heroic virtues [Alb.]; or our heart, our soul, and our strength [Thomas Aquinas]; or the life of prelacy, of contemplation, and of action [id.]; or the thirty-fold, sixty-fold, and hundred-fold fruit [id.]; Jesus appears to have spoken of three measures in allusion to Gen. 18:6; Judg. 6:19; 1 Kings. 1:24 [Jansenius, Knabenbauer, etc.], so that the quantity suffices for a copious meal. Since in the figurative language of the Jews [Weber, System, etc. 221], as well as in the New Testament [Mk. 8:15; Mt. 16:6], “leaven” usually signifies something evil, its occurrence in the present passage must not refer to its substance, but only to its hidden, almost irresistible manner of acting and to its result. It would lead us too far, were we even to delineate the similarity of action and of result on the part of the Messianic message [cf. Euthymius, Dionysius the Carthusian. Jansenius].

Mt 13:34. All these things Jesus spoke in parables to the multitudes: and without parables he did not speak to them.
Mt 13:35. That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying: I will open my mouth in parables, I will utter things hidden from the foundation of the world. 

All these things Jesus spoke in parables.] 5. Explanation of the second parable. The evangelist here interrupts the series of parables by inserting the explanation of the second parable, and by drawing attention to a fulfilment of prophecy in our Lord’s parable discourse. The appeal to prophecy holds a place in the series of parables similar to that in the series of miracles [cf. Mt. 8:17; 12:18], and cannot therefore be set aside as an interpolation [cf. Weiss.], a. Appeal to prophecy. “Without parables he did not speak to them” at this period of the public life, when the conversion of the mass of the people had become hopeless [Chrysostom, Theophylact, Euthymius, Dionysius the Carthusian, Jansenius, De Wette, Arnoldi, etc.], though in his earlier career he spoke to the people in plain language [cf. Schegg]. “That it might be fulfilled” does not admit of mere accommodation [Maldonado] of the Psalmist’s prediction to the ministry of our Lord; since Jesus was the anti-type of the Old Testament, not merely in his character of priest and king, but also of prophet, the typical prophetic actions, e.g. their teaching in parables, must find their parallel in the teaching of our Lord [cf. Mt. 5:12; 23:30; Lk. 13:33; Knabenbauer]. As, therefore, Asaph the Seer [2 Par. 29:30] appeals in Ps. 77, [78,] to certain facts of the nation’s history as to “parables” containing a moral doctrine, and as to “things hidden” expressing beside their obvious meaning the secrets of divine providence regarding the theocracy, so Jesus must in real parables describe the mysteries of the Messianic kingdom [cf. Col. 1:26; Jerome, Paschasius, Thomas Aquinas, Cajetan, Jansenius, Arnoldi, Schegg, Fillion, Knabenbauer etc.]. The first half of the evangelist’s quotation follows the Greek version, the second half gives the Hebrew original [Ps. 87:2]. At the time of the Psalmist the passage was a warning against apostasy, at the time of Isaias it was an indication of the judgment against Juda, at the time of our Lord it points to the alternative of salvation or rejection [cf. Schanz].

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The Compassion of Jesus Christ

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 11, 2021




The following is based upon Logos’ Thematic Outlines (HUSSER, LYDIA, Thematic Outlines: Dataset Documentation, Faithlife, Bellingham, WA 2017.)

Compassion of Jesus Christ

Synopsis: Jesus Christ’s pity and loving concern for the lowly and the needy. His words and deeds show God’s merciful and gracious nature in action.

Catechism of the Catholic Church:

Christ’s compassion towards men. (Read all 6 articles).
God’s compassion, 270
man’s compassion in forgiveness, 2843

Jesus Christ shows the compassion of God: 2 Co 1:3. See also 2 Ch 36:15; Ps 86:15; Ho 11:4; Ho 11:8–9; Lk 1:72; Lk 1:78; Lk 15:20

The compassion of Jesus Christ is the basis of Christian confidence: Heb 4:14–16 The Greek word here translated “sympathise” has the sense of “be compassionate towards”.

The demonstration of Jesus Christ’s compassion:

In supporting the weak: Mt 12:20 . See also Is 42:3; Mt 19:14

In healing the sick: Mt 14:14. See also Mt 20:34; Mk 1:41; Lk 13:12

In comforting the bereaved: Lk 7:13. See also Lk 8:50; Jn 11:33–35; Jn 19:25–27; Jn 20:14–16

In feeding the hungry: Mt 15:32. See also Mt 14:16

In finding and forgiving lost sinners: Mt 9:36. See also Is 40:11; Mt 18:14; Mt 23:37–38; Lk 7:47–48; Jn 8:10–11

In giving rest to those who are burdened or abandoned: Mt 11:28–29. See also Mk 1:40–41; Lk 11:46; Lk 15:1–2; Lk 17:12–14

Jesus Christ’s compassion is a model for Christians to follow: Lk 10:36–37. See also Jn 13:34; Jn 17:18; Php 2:1


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