The Divine Lamp

The unfolding of thy words gives light; it imparts understanding to the simple…Make thy face shine upon thy servant, and teach me thy statutes

Archive for February 13th, 2011

This Weeks Posts: Sunday, Feb 13-Saturday, Feb 19

Posted by Dim Bulb on February 13, 2011

Some posts are scheduled in advance and will not be available until the time indicated. Posts lacking time indicators are available regardless of when they are scheduled. This will be a very slow blogging week as I hope to begin preparing posts for Lent.

SUNDAY, FEB 13
SIXTH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Resources. Resources For Sunday Mass is a weekly feature of this blog. Next Sunday’s resources will be posted on Wednesday.

Last Weeks Posts.
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MONDAY, FEB 14
MEMORIAL OF ST CYRIL, MONK, AND ST METHODIUS, BISHOP

Readings.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 8:11-13).

About Saints Cyril and Methodius.

Cornelius a Lapide on 1 Cor 3:16-23 for Sunday Mass, Feb 20.

Bishop MacEvily on 1 Cor 3:16-23 for Sunday Mass, Feb 20.
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TUESDAY, FEB 15
SIXTH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Readings.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 8:14-21). 12:05 AM EST.

Father Callan on 1 Cor 9:24-27, 10:1-5 for Sunday Mass, Feb 20 (Extraordinary Form). 12:10 AM EST.

Bernardin de Piconio on 1 Cor 9:24-27, 10:1-5 for Sunday Mass, Feb 20 (Extraordinary Form). 12:15 AM EST.

Cornelius a Lapide on 1 Cor 9:24-27, 10:1-5 for Sunday Mass, Feb 20 (Extraordinary Form). 12:20 AM EST.
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WEDNESDAY, FEB 16
SIXTH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Reading.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 8:22-26). 12:05 AM EST.

Resources for Sunday Mass. 12:10 AM EST.
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THURSDAY, FEB 17
SIXTH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Readings.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 8:27-33). 12:05 AM EST.
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FRIDAY FEB 18
SIXTH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

St John Chrysostom’s Homily on Today’s First Reading(Gen 11:1-9). 12:05 AM EST.

St Augustine on Today’s First Reading (Gen 11:1-9).12:10 AM EST. From the City Of God.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 8:34-9:1). 12:15 AM EST.
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SATURDAY, FEB 19
SIXTH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Readings.

Father Callan on Today’s First Reading (Heb 11:1-7). 12:00 AM EST.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Today’s Psalm (145). 12:10 AM EST.

Pope Benedict XVI on Today’s Psalm (145). 12:15 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 9:2-13). 12:20 AM EST.

NOTE: The following links are related to this Sunday’s readings used in the Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite. For all my resources on this Sunday’s Mass for both the Ordinary and Extraordinary forms see the link Resources For Sunday Mass posted on Wednesday (above).

Pope St Gregory the Great on Matt 20:1-16 for Septuagesima Sunday.

St John Chrysostom’s Homily on 1 Cor 9:24-10:2 for Septuagesima Sunday.

St John Henry Newman’s Homily on 1 Cor 9:24.




Posted in Bible, Catechetical Resources, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, Eucharist, fathers of the church, Latin Mass Notes, liturgy, Notes on 1 Corinthians, Notes on Mark, Notes on the Lectionary, Quotes, Scripture, St Thomas Aquinas | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Feb 14: About Saints Cyril and Methodius

Posted by Dim Bulb on February 13, 2011

Source. Cyril (originally Constantine) and Methodius were brothers, from a noble family in Thessalonika, a district in northeastern Greece. Constantine was the younger, born in about 827, and his brother Methodius in about 825. They both entered the priesthood. Constantine undertook a mission to the Arabs, and then became a professor of philosophy at the imperial school in Constantinople and librarian at the cathedral of Santa Sophia. Methodius became governor of a district that had been settled by Slavs. Both brothers then retired to monastic life. In about 861, the Emperor Michel III sent them to work with the Khazars northeast of the Black Sea in the Dnieper-Volga region of what was later Russia. They learned the Khazar language and made many converts, and discovered what were believed to be relics of Clement, an early Bishop of Rome.

In about 863, Prince Rotislav, the ruler of Great Moravia (an area including much of what was later Czecko-Slovakia), asked the emperor for missionaries, specifying that he wanted someone who would teach his people in their own language (he had western missionaries, but they used only Latin). The emperor and the Patriarch Photius sent Methodius and his brother Constantine, who translated the Liturgy and much of the Scriptures into Slavonic.

Since Slavonic had no written form, they invented an alphabet for it, the Glagolitic alphabet, which gave rise to the Cyrillic alphabet (named for Constantine aka Cyril), which is used to write Russian and (with modifications) several related languages today. They used the Greek alphabet as their basis, writing a letter in two forms when two similar sounds in Slavonic each needed a letter (hence, in modern Russian, we have “plain a” written “A” and “fancy a” written like a backward “R” representing the sounds of hard and soft (or unpalatalized and palatalized) a, represented approximately in English by “ah” and “yah”). When no Greek letter was close, then they borrowed from Hebrew (the letter TZADDI for the sound “ts” as in “tsar”, and the letter SHIN for the sound “sh”, and a variant on it for the sound “shch” as in “Khrushchev”, and so on). The resulting alphabet had 43 letters. It has since undergone development, chiefly simplification and the omission of letters. Thus, the modern Russian alphabet has only 32 letters. The Cyrillic alphabet with minor variations is used today for Russian, Ukrainian, and other languages of the former USSR, and also for Bulgarian and Serbian and formerly for Rumanian. (Serbs and Croats both speak Serbo-Croatian, but the Serbs, who are traditionally East Orthodox, write it with the Cyrillic alphabet, while the Croats, who are traditionally Roman Catholic, write it with the Latin alphabet. Before the first World War, there were many muslims (regarded as Turks) living in Greece, and many Christians (regarded as Greeks) living in western Turkey. Each group spoke the language of the country in which it lived, but the Greek-speaking Turks in Greece wrote Greek using the Arabic script that was then standard for writing Turkish, and the Turkish-speaking Greeks in Turkey wrote Turkish in the Greek alphabet. For some reason, the alphabet matters to rival religious groups.)
Thus the brothers were the first to produce written material in the Slavic languages, and are regarded as the founders of Slavic literature.

The brothers encountered missionaries from Germany, representing the western or Latin branch of the Church, and more particularly representing the Holy Roman Empire as founded by Charlemagne, and committed to linguistic, and cultural uniformity. They insisted on the use of the Latin liturgy, and they regarded Moravia and the Slavic peoples as their rightful mission field. When friction developed, the brothers, unwilling to be a cause of dissension among Christians, went south toward Venice, and then from Venice to Rome to see the Pope, hoping to reach an agreement that would avoid quarreling between missionaries in the field. They brought with them the above-mentioned relics of Clement, third bishop of Rome after the Apostles (see 23 November). They arrived in Rome in 868 and were received with honor. Constantine entered a monastery there, taking the name Cyril, by which he is now remembered. However, he died only a few weeks thereafter. He is buried in Rome in the Church of San Clemente.

The Pope (Adrian II) gave Methodius the title of Archbishop of Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica in Yugoslavia) and sent him back in 869, with jurisdiction over all of Moravia and Pannonia, and authorization to use the Slavonic Liturgy. Soon, however, Prince Rotislav, who had originally invited the brothers to Moravia, died, and his successor did not support Methodius. In 870 the Frankish king Louis and his bishops deposed Methodius at a synod at Ratisbon, and imprisoned him for a little over two years. The pope (John VIII) secured his release, but told him not to use the Slavonic Liturgy any more. In 878 he was summoned to Rome on charges of heresy and using Slavonic. This time Pope John was convinced by his arguments and sent him back cleared of all charges, and with permission to use Slavonic. He died 6 April 885 in Velehrad, the old capitol of Moravia. The Carolingian bishop who succeeded him, Wiching, suppressed the Slavonic Liturgy and forced the followers of Methodius into exile. Many found refuge with King Boris of Bulgaria (852-889), under whom they reorganized a Slavic-speaking Church. Meanwhile, Pope John’s successors adopted a Latin-only policy which lasted for centuries.

Today Cyril and Methodius are honored by Eastern and Western Christians alike, and the importance of their work in preaching and worshipping in the language of the people is recognized on all sides.

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Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Mark 8:11-13

Posted by Dim Bulb on February 13, 2011

.11. And the Pharisees came forth, and began to question with Him, seeking of Him a sign from heaven, tempting Him.12. And He sighed deeply in His spirit, and saith, “Why doth this generation seek after a sign? Verily, I say unto you, there shall be no sign given unto this generation.”13. And He left them, and entering into the ship again departed to the other side.

Bede, in Marc., 2, 33: The Pharisees, then, seek a sign from heaven, that He, Who had for the second time fed many thousands of men with a few loaves of bread, should now, after the example of Moses, refresh the whole nation in the last time with manna sent down from heaven, and dispersed amongst them all.

Theophylact: Or they seek for a sign from heaven, that is, they wish Him to make the sun and moon stand still, to bring down hail, and change the atmosphere; for they thought that He could not perform miracles from heaven, but could only in Beelzebub perform a sign on earth.

Bede: When, as related above, He was about to refresh the believing multitude, He gave thanks, so now, on account of the foolish petition of the Pharisees, He groans; because, bearing about with Him the feelings of human nature, as He rejoices over the salvation of men, so He grieves over their errors.

Wherefore it goes on, “And He groaned in spirit, and saith, Why doth this generation seek after a sign? Verily I say unto you, If a sign shall be given to this generation.”

That is, no sign shall be given; as it is written in the Psalms, “I have sworn once by my holiness, if I shall fail David,” [Psa_80:36] that is, I will not fail David.

Augustine: Let no one, however, be perplexed that the answer which Mark says was given to them, when they sought a sign from heaven, is not the same as that which Matthew relates, namely, that concerning Jonah. He says that the Lord’s answer was, that no sign should be given to it; by which we must understand such an one as they asked for, that is, one from heaven; but he has omitted to say, what Matthew has related.

Theophylact: Now, the reason why the Lord did not listen to them was, that the time of signs from heaven had not arrived, that is, the time of the second Advent, when the powers of the heaven shall be shaken, and the moon shall not give her light. But in the time of the first Advent, all things are full of mercy, and such things do not take place.

Bede: For a sign from heaven was not to be given to a generation of men, who tempted the Lord; but to a generation of men seeking the Lord, He shews a sign from heaven, when in the sight of the Apostles He ascended into heaven.  It goes on, “And He left them, and entering into a ship again, He departed to the other side.”

Theophylact: The Lord indeed quits the Pharisees, as men uncorrected; for where there is a hope of correction, there it is right to remain; but where the evil is incorrigible, we should go away

Posted in Bible, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, fathers of the church, liturgy, Notes on Mark, Notes on the Lectionary, Quotes, Scripture, St Thomas Aquinas | Tagged: , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on 1 Corinthians 3:16-23

Posted by Dim Bulb on February 13, 2011

This post opens with Father’s brief analysis of all of chapter 3. Text in purple indicates Fr. MacEvilly’s paraphrasing of the scripture he is commenting on. Text in red, if my, are my additions.

1Co 3:16  Know you not that you are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?

Know you not that you are not only the building, but the sacred building, or temple of God, owing to the in-dwelling of the Holy Ghost in you by sanctifying grace?

The Apostle now returns to the subject from which he had digressed at verse 10, for the purpose of reminding the teachers of their duty; and following up the metaphor of the building, he says, the Corinthians are not only the building, but the temple, or sacred building of the Lord,  and that the Spirit of God & c.  And has the meaning of because in this passage, “because the Spirit of God dwells in you”.

1Co 3:17  But if any man violate the temple of God, him shall God destroy. For the temple of God is holy, which you are.

If any person violates the temple of God, him shall God destroy. Should any one, therefore, ruin your faith or morals, and be thus instrumental in expelling the Holy Ghost from you, who are his spiritual and holy temple, he shall meet with the punishment due to the sacrilegious profaners of God’s temple.

He here points out the fate of those who, instead of building on the foundation, subvert it by preaching false doctrine, or by corrupt morals. Violate, (in Greek, φθερει, corrupt), they shall not be  saved by fire, but eternally destroyed.  While addressing the people directly, the lesson is intended for the corrupters of their faith or morals. Those, therefore, who, by word or example, are instrumental in ruining the souls of their brethren, are guilty of a spiritual sacrilege, and shall he punished more severely than were even the violators of God s material temple, or the profaners of sacred things, of which we have examples in Baithasar, Athalia, and Heliodorus. (Daniel 5:2; 2 Chron 23; Maccabees 4:27).

1Co 3:18  Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you seem to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise.

Let no man be deceived; if any one among you has a character for worldly wisdom, let such a person become foolish, according to the world; should he wish to be wise according to God.

Having pointed out the lot of the different builders, on the day of judgment the perfect to be rewarded; the imperfect, saved by fire; and the wicked, eternally destroyed the Apostle now again addresses an admonition to those teachers, who prided in the possession of superior worldly accomplishments, and secular wisdom. He tells them not to be deceived, as if each teacher shall not be treated, as has been already explained, some saved by fire, others damned.  If any one among you seem to be wise in this world, i.e., have a character for worldly wisdom, let him become a fool. according to this world, by reducing his intellect to captivity, in obedience to Christian faith, and by proposing the doctrines of faith to others in a simple way, which is folly with the world.  That he may he wise according to God. The Apostle here strikes at the root of the Corinthian schism, viz., an affectation of superior wisdom on the part of the teachers, and an undue value attached to the same by the people. It is not unlikely that he refers to those men who were attempting to destroy the spiritual temple of God in the souls of men. These he exhorts to lay aside all pretensions to the character of worldly wisdom, and to become fools according to the world by reducing their intellect to captivity, unto the obedience of faith.

1Co 3:19  For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written: I will catch the wise in their own craftiness.

For the wisdom of this world is viewed in no better light by God than folly; for, it is written: I will catch the crafty in their cunning.

He assigns a reason for rejecting human wisdom, viz., because it has been rejected by God, in the work of salvation, and regarded by him in no better light than folly; it even proves noxious and injurious to our salvation. I will catch the wise, &c. (In the Greek,  he it is, viz., God that catcheth the wise in their craftiness) that is, he shall frustrate and turn the schemes of the crafty against themselves, so as to educe therefrom the very ends they are desirous to prevent, as in the case of Joseph’s brethren, and also in the case of the devil, whose empire the crucifixion of Christ destroyed; or, the words may mean, that he shall elude all the craftiness of the worldly wise. The words are quoted from the 5th chapter of Job, according to the Hebrew, and they are the words, not of Job, but of his friend, Eliphaz.

1Co 3:20  And again: The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain.

And also it is written: The Lord has known the devices of those men, who are reputed wise, to be vain and foolish.

This is from Psalm 94:11; the thoughts, διαλογισμους, i.e., the devices or plans of the wise. In the Psalm it is the thoughts of men, but St. Paul here applies to the powerful, and those desirous of a character for wisdom, what is said of men in general by the Psalmist.

1Co 3:21  Let no man therefore glory in men.

Let no one, therefore, glory in men (but in God alone).

This, then, is the conclusion which the Apostle derives from the foregoing; since all human wisdom and power are utterly worthless, they should not glory in any man, nor in any teacher beyond another. Far from glorying in any creatures, we should refer all glory to God alone, whose ministers the different preachers of the gospel are.

1Co 3:22  For all things are yours, whether it be Paul or Apollo or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come. For all are yours.

(Through whose mercy) all things are yours, whether it be Paul, or Apollo, or Cephas, or the whole world, with all it contains, whether animate or inanimate, whether things present or future, whether gifts of nature or of grace; all are yours, and made, by the grace of Christ, subservient to your salvation: (why then glory in anything that is made subservient to your use?)

The words of this verse convey the same as the passage in the Epistle to the
Romans, all things work together unto good for them that love God (Rom 8:28).  All things are yours, i.e., subservient and ancillary to your salvation. Paul, &c., all the preachers of the Gospel announce it for your salvation; the world, all creatures are intended by God to lead you to him; or life, to acquire merits during its continuance; or death, which is a passage unto glory; or things present, all the gifts of grace or nature which you now enjoy, point to the glory in store for you; or things to come, all the gifts of glory which are held forth as so many motives for encouragement to perseverance,  all are yours.

1Co 3:23  And you are Christ’s. And Christ is God’s.

But you yourselves belong to Christ, who redeemed you, and Christ as man, belongs to God; therefore, we should glory in Christ and God only.

And you are Christ’s. Christ, as man, has purchased you, and hence, you
are his, by right of purchase, and Christ is God’s.  All creatures are intended for the use and benefit of man, but man himself is destined to enjoy God hereafter, and promote his glory here. Therefore, we should seek to promote in all our words and actions the glory of God alone, whether we eat, or whether we drink, or whatever else we do, we should seek the glory of God (1 Cor 10:31).  The Lord hath made all things for himself (Prov 16:4). I the Lord, this is my name ; I will not give my glory to another (Isa 42:8). To us God has given the benefit of his gifts, but the glory of them he has inalienably reserved to himself. For God then we are created. We are here below only in a state of probation a place of exile. Heaven and God is our end, our final, eternal enjoyment. What folly, then, to engage in any pursuit, to indulge in any enjoyment which would imperil this great end of our being, and, which, besides entailing an irreparable loss of infinite good, of boundless happiness, would involve us in excruciating tortures, which would end only with God, and of the never-ending duration of which we would be irresistibly conscious every moment that we suffered: thus hearing, each moment, the entire torture of Eternity pomlus eternitatis. Notum fae mihi, Domine, finem meum…..ut sciam quid desit mihi (O Lord, make me know my end. And what is the number of my days: that I may know what is wanting to me Ps 39:5).
What torture so dreadful as when sentence of eternal damnation, is first made known to the trembling soul, at judgment, after a dreadful state of suspense?

Posted in Bible, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, liturgy, Notes on 1 Corinthians, Notes on the Lectionary, Quotes, Scripture | Tagged: , , , , | 1 Comment »

Cornelius a Lapide’s Commentary on 1 Corinthians 3:16-23

Posted by Dim Bulb on February 13, 2011

1Co 3:16  Know you not that you are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?

Know you not that you are the temple of God? This is a return to the image of ver. 9: “Ye are God’s building,” and therefore not a heathen temple, but the temple of God, in which by faith, grace, charity, and His gifts He dwells. So Anselm and others. For a fuller exposition if this, see the notes to 2 Cor 6:16.

How the soul may be dedicated as a temple to God is declared at length by S. Bernard (Serm. 1 de Dedic. Eccl.). He says that there are five things observed in a dedication: the sprinkling, the marking with the cross, the anointing, the illumination, and the benediction; and all these take place also in the dedication of the soul.

Observe that up to the present S. Paul has been dealing with those teachers and those of the faithful who build up the holy edifice of the Church. He now turns to those who undermine it.

1Co 3:17  But if any man violate the temple of God, him shall God destroy. For the temple of God is holy, which you are.

If any one, through the fatal pride that is born of human wisdom, through novel, erroneous, and pestilential teaching, or through schisms such as are found among you, O Corinthians, says Anselm; or if any one in any other way corrupt the Church, or any individual soul in it—him shall God destroy. The Apostle is speaking mainly of the corruption that comes through the teaching of false doctrine, through pride, through envy, or the fomenting of schism. For as he began, so does he finish this chapter with warnings to false teachers. It appears, too, from the next words where he says that any such defiler shall not be saved, so as by fire, but shall be consumed in everlasting fire.

1Co 3:18  Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you seem to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise.

If any man among you seem to be wise in this world. If any man is proud if his worldly wisdom and eloquence, his earthly knowledge and so come to look down on others, let him become filled with humility and faith, and with the folly of the Cross, so as to be a fool in the eyes of the world. Cf. notes on 1:26. This with God is the only true wisdom. Since the world’s wisdom is folly with God, and God’s wisdom foolishness to the world, it follows that we cannot be wise unless according to the world we are fools—unless, in spite of our greatness and wisdom before the world, we submit ourselves like children, nay, like fools, to the faith, doctrine, cross, and obedience of Christ. “So,” says S. Bernard (Serm. 2 de Epiph.), “did the three Magi worship the Child in the manger and become fools, so as to learn wisdom; and so the spirit taught them what was afterwards preached by Apostles: ‘He who wishes to be wise let him become a fool, that he may be wise.’ They enter the stable, they find a child wrapped in swaddling clothes: they think no scorn of the stable, stumble not at the swaddling clothes, nor find offence in the Infant at the breast: they fall down, they worship Him as King, they adore Him as God. Surely, He who led thither their steps also opened the eyes of their mind. He who guided them from without by a star, also taught them in the deepest recesses of the heart.” S. Basil asks (Reg. brevoir. 274): “How is any one made a fool in this world?” And he replies, “If he fears the judgment of God, who says. ‘Woe to them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight;’ and if he imitates Him who said, ‘I became even as a beast before Thee;’ if he throw away all empty belief in his own wisdom, reverse all his former judgments, and confess that not even from the beginning has he ever thought aright till he was taught by the command of God what was pleasing to Him in thought, word, and deed.”

1Co 3:19  For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written: I will catch the wise in their own craftiness.

For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. God has rejected the wisdom of the world as worthless, (1.) because it has nothing in it that is wholesome and Divine, and does nothing towards salvation; (2.) He would not use it in the preaching of the Apostles, but employed instead unlettered Apostles; (3.) It is often contrary to the faith, not only in speculative matters (as, e.g., all who are merely worldly-wise reject the mystery of the Holy Trinity, of the Incarnation and death of the Son of God as being impossible and incredible), but also in matters of practice and morals. For Christ bids us love our enemies; the wisdom of the world bids us hate them: Christ bids us overcome evil with good, the world says, “Return evil for evil;” Christ calls blessed the poor, the meek, them that mourn, that hunger, that suffer persecution, but the world says that it is the rich, those that are in high station, that laugh, feast, and rule, that are happy.

For it is written, I will catch the wise in their own craftiness. This is from Job 5:13. They are the words, not of Job, but of Eliphaz, who wished to show that Job had deserved his calamities through his sins. He was reproved by God (Job 42:7), and therefore these words of Eliphaz have not the authority os Holy Scripture, but only that of a wise man. For S. Paul approves of this saying of Eliphaz as being true, and wisely said by a wise man.

God takes the wise in their craftiness when He fulfils His will by the very means by which they thought to reverse it. When the brothers of Joseph, wishing to stultify his dreams about his future leadership, threw him into a pit and sold him into Egypt, God through their action, exalted him, and made him ruler over Egypt, and forced his brothers to do him reverence. In like manner God overruled the wisdom of Pharaoh at the Red Sea, of Saul and Achithophel on their attempts to destroy David, of Haman at the gallows, where he thought to slay Mordecai. So S. Thomas.

1Co 3:20  And again: The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain.

And again, the Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are but vain. Ps 94:11. By all these quotations and reasons S. Paul impresses on the Corinthians that the worldly wisdom and eloquence of which they boasted themselves, and through which they put Apollos before himself, were but vain. He declares that the true wisdom is the faith and teaching of Christ, which he had preached them—on simple words, indeed, but yet with burning and efficacious zeal.

S. Jerome, moralising on Ps 94, says: “Do you wish to know how it is that the thoughts of men are vain? A father and mother bring up a child, they promise themselves happiness in him, they send him to be educated; he comes to manhood, they enter him as a soldier, and when through thirty years they have thought of everything for him, a slight attack of fever comes and carries away the fruit of all their thought. O anxiety of man! how vain is it in human affairs! One thought alone brings happiness—the thought of God.”

1Co 3:21  Let no man therefore glory in men.
1Co 3:22  For all things are yours, whether it be Paul or Apollo or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come. For all are yours.

Let no man therefore glory in men . . . all things are yours. Glory not in Paul or in Apollos (see 1 Cor 1:10-17; 3:5-9), for they and all others, nay, all creatures are common to each one of you; they all alike concur in procuring your salvation.

It should be remarked that S. Paul, when he says that all are yours, does not teach a community of goods such as there was in paradise, and as Huss, Wyclif, and others fondly dream of. He means that by way of final cause and use, not by way of possession, all things have been intended to help forward their salvation. So say Anselm, Ambrose, Theodoret, S. Thomas, Chrysostom. They have been given to be used either objectively or subjectively, which latter consists in acknowledging and praising the Creator in all His creatures; and this is what is meant by the common saying, “The whole world swells the wealth of the faithful.” Cf. Theodoret (Serm. 10 de. Provid.). Hence S. Chrysostom says: “We are Christ’s in one way; Christ is God’s in another; the world is ours in another. For we are Christ’s as His work; Christ is God’s as His most dearly–beloved Son; the world is ours, not as being our work, but because it was made on our account.” The world then is ours, because all creatures in the world serve our body and soul; life is ours, that we may lay up a store of merits; death is ours, because it is the gate through which we pass to everlasting life; or the death of martyrdom is ours; things present, whether adverse or prosperous, are ours that we may extract good from them; things to come are ours, that we may enjoy them: they are now ours in hope, they will be ours in fact in heaven. So S. Thomas and Anselm. Ours, too, are evil things, such as hell and the lost, that we may rule over them.

1Co 3:23  And you are Christ’s. And Christ is God’s.

You are Christ’s. You are the mystical members of Christ, your Head and Lord, and therefore you are His possession, having been bought by His Blood. Therefore you should glory in Christ, not in Paul or Apollos. So S. Thomas and Anselm.

And Christ is God’s. (1.) Because, as God, He is the Son of God. Ambrose says, “Christ is the Son of God, and does His will, that we too may do it.” So, too, Chrysostom, Theodoret, Anselm. (2.) Christ as man is God’s, as His Lord and Head, being His creature and His possession. So S. Thomas and Cajetan.

From what has been said it appears that all the faithful, and especially the elect, are the end for which God created all things. The end of all things is Christ as man. For this glory was the due of such a man, viz., that all things should serve Him, be ordained foe Him, and look to Him as their end. But Christ is for God and His glory, and therefore all glory is to be given, not to Paul or Apollos, but to God alone.

S. Chrysostom (Hom. 10 Moral.) says beautifully: “All that we are and all that we have comes from Christ: life and light, and spirit, and air and earth. If any of these be taken from us we perish, for we are but strangers and pilgrims. ‘Mine and thine’ are, when carefully considered, but empty words. Though you may speak of your house as being your own, you speak foolishly; for indeed the air, the earth, the material of which it is made, yourself who build it, and all other things are the property of the Creator. Even if the use of it is yours it is of uncertain duration, not only because of death, but also because of the uncertainty of all things before death. for we are God’s in two ways—by creation and re-creation; and if your soul is not your own, how can you say that your money is? Since, therefore, it is not your own, you should expend it upon your fellow-servants. Do not say, then, ‘I spend my own.’ It is not your own, it is another’s, nay, it is common to thee and thy fellow-servant, like as the sun and air and all things are.”

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