The Divine Lamp

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Archive for June 15th, 2011

Father Cornelius a Lapide’s Commentary on 2 Corinthians 13:11-13

Posted by Dim Bulb on June 15, 2011

2Co 13:11  For the rest, brethren, rejoice, be perfect, take exhortation, be of one mind, have peace. And the God of grace and of love shall be with you.

Be perfect. The Greek word used here denotes to mend a torn garment.  S. Paul is alluding to the vices, evil habits, and especially the lukewarmness of the Corinthians. He says in effect: Make yourselves whole again, correct your old faults, curb the license of your lives, re-knit your severed friendship, union, and concord, so that you may have nothing to correct, nothing calling for punishment at my hands. Or, again, the word used is one bidding them agree amongst themselves and with their head, even as members in a body agree with each other under a common head. Cf. 1 Cor 12:16, note.

Take exhortation. Exhort one another to better things (Latin version). Have consolation in mutual agreement (Vatablus).

Be of one mind. Have the same convictions, the same will: be of one mind and one soul.

Live in peace, and the God of love and peace shall be with you. God is the author and giver of peace, and is well pleased with peace: as its guardian, He will be with you (Anselm). Ediner, in his Life of Anselm, relates that he was wont to say that those who in this life conform their wills to the will of others, so far as righteousness allows, merit at God’s hands to have Him conform Himself after this life to their will, and live at peace with them. On the other, those who quarrel here with the wills of others will hereafter find no one to conform his will to theirs. It is the just rule of God’s justice, that with whatever measure we mete it shall be measured to us again. God acts in the same way in rewarding other virtues and punishing other sins.

2Co 13:12  Salute one another with a holy kiss.  All the saints salute you.

Salute one another with an holy kiss. What was this kiss? Xenophon (Cyropœdia, lib. i.) and Herodotus (Clio) testify that it was a heathen custom to salute one another with a kiss at meeting, in token of friendship. Suetonius says that Tiberius tried in vain to put an end to the practice. The Jews had the same custom. Cf. 2 Sam 20:9. Judas, too, was but conforming to what was usual when he betrayed Christ with a kiss. It was a still more solemn and common custom with the early Christians, both on other occasions, and especially when they met for Holy Communion, to salute one another with a kiss, or other familiar salutation, saying, “Peace be with you.” This was a symbol of goodwill towards those about to communicate, of the forgiveness of all injury, and of pure charity. Cf. Cyril (Cat. Myst. 5). Tertullian (de Orat.) calls this kiss “the symbol of prayer.”

S. Chrysostom gives the mystical meaning to be, that through our mouth enters the body of Christ. We, therefore, kiss it, just as the early Christians, out of reverence for the sacred building, used to kiss the doors of the church. He gives directions how to guard this mouth against all that defiles, and to consecrate it to the praises of God. In some churches, even now, it is the custom for the canons to give this kiss before the Holy Communion. When some men, though the sexes sat apart, secretly crept in among the women and kissed them, the kissing the tablet of peace, as it is called, took the place of the kiss of peace.

A holy kiss, therefore, is not one that is heathen, carnal, fraudulent, but one that is devout, pure, and sincere, as a Christian’s should be (Chrysostom). Cf. S. Augustine (Serm. 83 de Diversis) and Baronius (Annals, A.D. 45). The author of the work “on Friendship,” included among the writings of S. Augustine, gives four reasons why this holy kiss is given: (1.) as a sign of reconciliation between those who have been enemies; (2.) in sign of peace, as in the sacrifice of the Mass; (3.) in sign of joy and of renewed love, as when a friend returns after a long absence; (4.) in sign of Catholic communion, as when a guest is welcomed with a kiss. But in all such matters the custom of the place is to be followed, and care must be taken that this kiss do not degenerate into a merely sensual delight.

2Co 13:13The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the charity of God and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all. Amen.

The grace of the Lord, &c. Chrysostom, Ambrose, and Theodoret point out that this passage proves that the Holy Trinity is consubstantial, or of the same nature, power, and operation, especially in the work of our redemption, which is more particularly in the Apostle’s mind. Ambrose says. “In the Trinity there is a unity of power, perfecting the whole of our salvation. For the love of God sent His Son to save us, by whose grace we are saved; and that we might possess this saving grace, He makes us sharers of His Holy Spirit.”

Observe 1. that by the phrase “the love of God,” the name of God is appropriated to the Father. For the Father is the fount of Godhead, and the Origin of the other Persons of the Blessed Trinity.

2. Love is fitly attributed to the Father, grace to the Son, and fellowship to the Holy Spirit: for from the Father and His love our redemption took its rise. “The Father so loved the world that He gave His Only-Begotten Son” to die for us. By the Son came grace, inasmuch as, when we merited nothing but evil, He redeemed us by His death, and merited all grace for us. By the Holy Spirit we are made partakers of grace and of the gifts of grace. Anselm explains “the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ” to mean that our sins are freely forgiven, and salvation given us; “the love of God” to be the love of the Father in freely giving His Son for us; “the fellowship of the Holy Spirit” to be the co-operation of the Holy Spirit with the Father and the Son in the work of man’s salvation.

3. Fellowship may be taken actively or passively. Passively, it is identical with participation, and the meaning would then be: May the Holy Spirit be given to you, that you may be partakers of His grace and its gifts, may be changed into the Holy Spirit not essentially but participatively (Theophylact). Actively, the meaning is: May the Holy Spirit, who has fellowship with the Father and the Son in essence, in love, in power, and working, also have fellowship with them in communicating to you His gracious love, and, the gifts attached to it. Especially may He cause you to lay aside all divisions, and be joined together in mutual love, inasmuch as He is the bond of union between the Father and the Son, and therefore between all the faithful, who partake of the same Spirit and are united in His love.  S. Paul, therefore, wishes for them the gift of fellowship, to take away all divisions.

4. Grace, love, fellowship may be either created or uncreated. Grace and love uncreate are the loving-kindness of the Father and the Son towards us. Thus we are said to find grace, i.e., goodwill, favour, in the eyes of God. E.g., in Tit_2:11, we read: “The grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared,” viz., when out of His love for us He condescended to assume flesh for us. Similarly, the uncreated fellowship of the Holy Spirit is that communion or fellow-ship which He has with the Father and the Son, or that participation of Godhead, and of all the Divine attributes which the Father and the Son communicate to the Holy Spirit, and He in him to us. Created grace is that which is infused into us to make us pleasing to God; created charity is that by which we love God; created fellowship of the Holy Spirit is the participation of His gifts given to us.

If, then, firstly we take this verse of uncreated grace, love, and fellowship of the Holy Ghost, the sense is this: May the grace, or the loving-kindness of Christ, and the love that the Father has for us, and the fellowship, or that bond of love by which the Holy Spirit shares all the Divine attributes with the Father and the Son, and then communicates them to us, be and remain with you, to give you, and ever give you, fellowship in that love and all other good gifts of God.

If, secondly, we take it of created grace, love, and fellowship of the Holy Spirit, all of which flow from their uncreated originals, then the sense will be: May the grace which Christ gives, and the love bestowed by the Father, and the gifts communicated by the Holy Spirit be and remain always with you; and especially that mutual and brotherly love, which of all things is the brightest, the most pleasing to God, and the most necessary to you, 0 Corinthians, viz., the fellowship of the Holy Ghost. Similarly, in Rom 5:5 love has both meanings.

Give us ever Thy grace, 0 Jesu Christ, our Redeemer; give us ever thy love, 0 Father, our Creator and Glorifier; give us ever fellowship with Thee, 0 Holy Ghost, our justifier; that, in time and eternity we may love Thee and glorify Thee, God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, One God, Divine Trinity, Triune Eternity. What have I in heaven but Thee, and what is there that I can desire on earth in comparison of Thee? God is the Strength of my heart and my Portion for ever.

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St John Chrysostom’s Homiletic Commentary on 2 Corinthians 13:11-13

Posted by Dim Bulb on June 15, 2011

2Co 13:11. “For the rest, brethren, rejoice, be perfected, be comforted, be of the same mind, live in peace, and the God of love and peace shall be with you.”

What means, “for the rest, brethren, rejoice?” Thou hast pained, terrified, thrown them into an agony, made them to tremble and fear, and how biddest thou them rejoice? ‘Why, for this very reason I bid them rejoice. For,’ he says, ‘if what is your part follow’ upon mine, there will be nothing to prevent that joy. For all my part has been done; I have suffered long, I have delayed, I have forborne to cut off, I have besought, I have advised, I have alarmed, I have threatened, so as by every means to gather you in unto the fruit of repentance. And now it behoveth that your part be done, and so your joy will be unfading.’

“Be perfected.” What is, “be perfected?” ‘Be complete, fill up what is deficient.’

“Be comforted.” For, since their trials were numerous, and their perils great, he says, ’ “be comforted,” both by one another, and by us, and by your change unto the better. For if ye should have joy of conscience and become complete, nothing is wanting unto your cheerfulness and comfort. For nothing doth so produce comfort as a pure conscience, yea, though innumerable trials surround.’

“Be of the same mind, live in peace.” The request he made in the former Epistle also, at the opening. For it is possible to be of one mind, and yet not to live in peace, [for instance], when people agree in doctrine, but in their dealings with each other are at variance. But Paul requires both.

“And the God of love and peace shall be with you.” For truly he not only recommends and advises, but also prays. For either he prays for this, or else foretells what shall happen; or rather, both. ‘For if ye do these things,’ he says, ‘for instance, if ye be “of one mind” and “live in peace,” God also will be with you, for He is “the God of love and of peace,” and in these things He delighteth, He rejoiceth. Hence shall peace also be yours from His love; hence shall every evil be removed. This saved the world, this ended the long war, this blended together heaven and earth, this made men angels. This then let us also imitate, for love is the mother of countless good things. By this we were saved, by this all those unspeakable good things [come] to us.’

Then to lead them on unto it, he says,

2Co 13:12. “Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the saints salute you.”

What is “holy?” not hollow, not treacherous, like the kiss which Judas gave to Christ. For therefore is the kiss given, that it may be fuel unto love, that it may kindle the disposition, that we may so love each other, as brothers brothers, as children parents, as parents children; yea, rather even far more. For those things are a disposition implanted by nature, but these by spiritual grace. Thus our souls bound unto each other. And therefore when we return after an absence we kiss each other, our souls hastening unto mutual intercourse. For this is that member which most of all declares to us the workings of the soul. But about this holy kiss somewhat else may yet be said. To what effect? We are the temple of Christ; we kiss then the porch and entrance of the temple when we kiss each other. See ye not how many kiss even the porch of this temple, some stooping clown, others grasping it with their hand, and putting their hand to their mouth. And through these gates and doors Christ both had entered into us, and doth enter, whensoever we communicate. Ye who partake of the mysteries understand what I say. For it is in no common manner that our lips are honored, when they receive the Lord’s Body. It is for this reason chiefly that we here kiss. Let them give ear who speak filthy things, who utter railing, and let them shudder to think what that mouth is they dishonor; let those give ear who kiss obscenely. Hear what things God hath proclaimed by thy mouth, and keep it undefiled. He hath discoursed of the life to come, of the resurrection, of immortality, that death is not death, of those other innumerable mysteries. For he that is about to be initiated comes to the priest’s mouth as it were an oracle, to hear things full of awe. For he lost his life even from his forefathers, and comes to seek it again, and to ask how he may haply find and get it back. Then God announceth to him how it may be found, and that mouth becomes more awful than the very mercy-seat. For that mercy-seat never sent forth a voice like this, but spake much of lesser things, of wars and such peace as is here below: but this speaks all about heaven and the life to come, and things new and that pass understanding. And having said, “Salute one another with an holy kiss,” he added, “All the saints salute you.”

By this also giving them good hopes. He has added this in the place of the kiss, knitting them together by the salutation, for the words also proceed from the same mouth from which the kiss. Seest thou how he brings them all together, both those who are widely separated in the body and those who are near, these by the kiss and those by the written message?

2Co 13:13. “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the Father, “and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all.” After having united them to one other by the salutations and the kisses, he again closes his speech with prayer, with much carefulness uniting them unto God also. Where now are they who say that because the Holy Spirit is not inserted in the beginnings of the Epistles, He is not of the same substance? For, behold, he hath now enumerated Him with the Father and Son. And besides this, one may remark, that when writing to the Colossians and saying, “Grace to you, and peace from God our Father,” he was silent of the Son, and added not, as in all his Epistles, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. Is then the Son not of the same substance either, because of this? Nay, these reasonings are of extreme folly. For this very thing especially shows Him to be of the same substance, that Paul useth the expression [or not] indifferently. And that what is here said is no conjecture, hear how he mentions Son and Spirit, and is quite silent of the Father. For, writing to the Corinthians, he says, “But ye were washed, but ye were sanctified, but ye were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and in the Spirit of our God.” (1 Cor 6:11) What then, tell me? were these not baptized into the Father? Then assuredly they were neither washed nor sanctified. But did they baptize them? doubtless then just as also they did baptize. How then did he not say, ‘Ye are washed in the name of the Father?’ Because it was indifferent in his view, at one time to make mention of this, at another of that Person; and you may observe this custom in many places of the Epistles. For writing to the Romans he says, “I beseech you therefore by the mercies of God,” (Rom 12:1) although those mercies are of the Son; and, “I beseech you by the love of the Spirit,” (Rom 15:30) although love is of the Father. Wherefore then mentioned he not the Son in “the mercies,” nor the Father in “the love?” Because as being things plain and admitted, he was silent about them. Moreover, he will be found again, to put the gifts also themselves transposedly. For having said here, “The grace of Christ, and the love of God and the Father, and the communion of the Holy Ghost;” he in another place speaks of “the communion of the Son,” and of “the love of the Spirit.” For, “I beseech you,” he says, “by the love of the Spirit.” (Rom 15:30) And in his Epistle to the Corinthians, “God is faithful, by Whom ye were called into the communion of His Son.” (1 Cor 1:9) Thus the things of the Trinity are undivided: and whereas the communion is of the Spirit, it hath been found of the Son; and whereas the grace is of the Son, it is also of the Father and of the Holy Spirit; for [we read], “Grace be to you from God the Father.” And in another place, having enumerated many forms of it, he added, “But all these worketh the one and the same Spirit, dividing to each one severally as He will.” (1 Cor 12:11) And I say these things, not confounding the Persons, (away with the thought!) but knowing both the individuality and distinctness of These, and the Unity of the Substance.

Let us then continue both to hold these doctrines in their strictness, and to draw to us the love of God. For before indeed He loved us when hating Him, and reconciled us who were His enemies; but henceforth He wishes to love us as loving Him. Let us then continue to love Him, so that we may be also loved by Him. For if when beloved by powerful men we are formidable to all, much more when[beloved] by God, And should it be needful to give wealth, or body, or even life itself for this love, let us not grudge them. For it is not enough to say in words that we love, but we ought to give also the proof of deeds; for neither did He show love by words only, but by deeds also. Do thou then also show this by thy deeds and do those things which please Him, for so shalt thou thyself reap again the advantage. For He needeth nothing that we have to bestow, and this is also a special proof of a sincere love, when one who needeth nothing and is not in any necessity, doth all for the sake of being loved by us. Wherefore also Moses said, “For what doth the Lord God require of you, but to love Him, and that thou shouldest be ready to walk after Him?” (Deut 10:12) So that when He biddeth thee love Him, He then most of all showeth that He loves thee. For nothing doth so secure our salvation as to love Him. See then, how that all His commandments even tend together to our repose and salvation and good report. For when he says, “Blessed are the merciful, blessed are the pure in heart, blessed are the meek, blessed are the poor in spirit, blessed are the peacemakers;” (Mt 5:3-9) He Himself indeed reaps no advantage from these, but he enjoins them for our adorning and attuning; and when He says, “I was an hungred,” it is not as needing that ministry from us, but as exciting thee to humanity. For He was well able even without thee to feed the poor man; but as bestowing uponthee an exceeding treasure, he laid these commands upon thee. For if the sun, which is but a creature, needeth not our eyes; for he abideth in his own proper brightness, even though none should look upon him, and we it is who are the gainers when we enjoy his beams; much more is this so with God. But that thou mayest learn this in yet another way; how great wilt thou have the distance to be between God and us? as great as between gnats and us, or much greater? Quite plainly it is much greater, yea, infinite. If then we vainglorious creatures need not service nor honor from gnats, much rather the Divine Nature [none from us], seeing It is impassible and needing nothing. The measure of that which He enjoyeth by us is but the greatness of our benefit, and the delight He taketh in our salvation. For this reason He also oftentimes relinquisheth His own, and seeketh thine. “For if any,” he saith,” have a wife that believeth not, and she be pleased to dwell with him, let him not put her away;” (1 Cor 7:12) and, “He that putteth away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery.” Seest thou what unspeakable goodness? ’ If a wife be a harlot,’ He says, ’ I do not compel the husband to live with her; and if she be an unbeliever, I do not forbid him,’ Again, ’ if thou be grieved against any one, I command him that hath grieved thee to leave My gift and to run to thee.’ For He saith, “If thou art offering thy gift, and there remember that thy brother hath aught against thee, leave thy gift before the altar, and go thy way, first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.” (Mt 5:23-24) And what saith the parable of him that had devoured his all? (Mt 18:24, &c). Doth it not show this? For when he had eaten up those ten thousand talents, He had mercy on him, and let him go; but when he demanded of his fellowservant an hundred pence, he both called him wicked and delivered him over to the punishment. So great account doth He make of thy ease. The barbarian was about to sin against the wife of the just man, and He says, “I spared thee from sinning against me.” (Gen 20:6 ) Paul persecuted the Apostles, and He saith to him, “Why persecutest thou Me?” Others are hungry, and He Himself saith He is an hungred, and wanders about naked and a stranger, wishing to shame thee, and so to force thee into the way of almsgiving.

Reflecting then upon the love, how great He hath shown in all things, and still shows it to be, both having vouchsafed to make Himself known to us, (which is the greatest crown of good things, and light to the understanding and instruction in virtue,) and to lay down laws for the best mode of life, and having done all things for our sakes, having given His Son, and promised a kingdom, and invited us to those unspeakable good things, and prepared for us a most blessed life, let us do and say every thing so as both to appear worthy of His love and to obtain the good things to come; whereunto may we all attain, through the grace and love towards men of our Lord Jesus Christ; with Whom to the Father, with the Holy Spirit, be glory now and ever, and world without end.

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Haydock’s Commentary on 2 Corinthians 13:11-13

Posted by Dim Bulb on June 15, 2011

2Co 13:11  For the rest, brethren, rejoice, be perfect, take exhortation, be of one mind, have peace. And the God of grace and of love shall be with you.

Rejoice.  Greek: Chairete, bene valete.  In this sense the Greeks used this term at the conclusion of their writings; and Greek: Loipon, to denote that the writer of speaker was hastening to a conclusion. — Be perfect. Literally, in the Latin be exhorted.

2Co 13:12  Salute one another with a holy kiss.

This was customary with both Jews and Persians, as we learn from Xenophon and Herodotus, and with other oriental nations.  And in process of time, from the custom of common life, it was introduced into ecclesiastial assemblies.  The ancients were in the habit before they began their meal to embrace each other, to manifest by that sign their mutual cordiality and friendship; then they contributed their alms, that they might give a substantial proof of what was represented by their kiss of charity.

2Co 13:13  (13:12) All the saints salute you

For my part, I wish you, with all my heart, that the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the charity of God, and the communion of his holy Spirit, may dwell with you all.  Amen is wanted in the Greek, but was added by the Church of Corinth, which was accustomed to make this reply as often as this epistle was read.  When we recall to our mind the excess of corruption that had reigned in the city of Corinth under paganism, excess attested by profane authors, and which St. Paul brings to their recollection, (1 Corinthians 6:9.) we are all astonishment that in the short space of four years the gospel had operated amongst the faithful of this church, such a prodigious change in their manners, and that they were become capable of receiving lessons of morality so very pure as is this of the apostle.

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Father Callan’s Commentary on 2 Corinthians 13:11-13

Posted by Dim Bulb on June 15, 2011

In a short time the Apostle expects to visit Corinth, and hence only a few words are required to terminate this letter. Following the severity that has preceded in the last four chapters some brief expression of kindness now will dispose the faithful to proper dispositions.

11. For the rest, brethren, rejoice, be perfect, take exhortation, be of one mind, have peace; and the God of peace and of love shall be with you.

Rejoice (χαιρετε), i.e., have a holy joy in your belonging to Christ (1 Thess 5:16).

Be perfect, i.e., correct your faults. The Greek word  καταρτιζεσθε suggests a complete and thorough repair or adjustment.

Take exhortation. Rather, “Be comforted,” in spite of the troubles in your Church.

Be of one mind, etc., i.e., keep aloof from parties and divisions.

And the God of peace, etc. The inverse order is found in the best Greek: “And the God of love and peace,” etc. The connection with the two preceding exhortations is very close: “Be of one mind, and the God of love shall be with you; have peace, and the God of peace shall be with you” (Plum.).

12. Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the saints salute you.

Salute one another, etc. See on Rom 16:16; 1 Cor16:20.

All the saints, i.e., all the Christians in the place from which St. Paul was writing this letter. The place is Macedonia, perhaps at Philippi, for all who hold the integrity of 2 Cor.; but Ephesus, for those who believe this verse to be a part of the severe letter written between 1 and 2 Cor.

13. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the
communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all. Amen.

This verse contains the fullest and most instructive of the benedictions found in St. Paul’s letters. The blessing here given is extended to all the Corinthians and embraces everything necessary for them, namely, “the grace of Christ, by which we are justified and saved; the charity of God the Father, by which we are united to Him; and the communication of the Holy Spirit, distributing to us His divine gifts” (St. Thomas). The only blessing which rivals this one in St. Paul is that found at the close of Ephesians. Perhaps the Apostle felt that the Corinthian Church, by reason of its dissensions and strifes, was in particular need of a more complete benediction.

The Greek Fathers frequently appealed to this verse against the various Anti-Trinitarian heretics. The familiarity with which St. Paul here refers to the three Persons of the Blessed Trinity shows that even at so early a date the faithful, who were far removed from the older centres of Christian thought and teaching, were well acquainted with the doctrine of three Persons in one divine nature. Of course, it was expressed in the baptismal formula (Matt 28:19), and was therefore one of the first doctrines to be taught.

The Amen is wanting in the best MSS.

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Father Bernardin de Piconio’s Commentary on 2 Cor 13:9-13

Posted by Dim Bulb on June 15, 2011

9. For we rejoice that we are weak, and you are powerful. And this we pray for, your consummation.

10. Therefore I write this being absent, that I may not when present act with severity, according to the power which the Lord gave me, for edification, and not for destruction.
11. For the rest, brethren, rejoice, be perfect, exhort one
another, be of one mind, be at peace, and the God of peace and love shall be with you.
12. Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the saints salute you.
13. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Spirit, be with you all. Amen.

(verse 9) I shall be only too glad to find no occasion for the exercise of any such power, if you are strengthened in God’s grace, for what I most desire is your complete restoration to true faith and sanctity.  (verse 10) It is in the hope of this that I have used language of such apparent severity in this epistle, written from a distance, that I may be spared the necessity of acting with severity when I am among you. For God’s end and object in conferring miraculous power is attained by your edification, and he did not give them to destroy.  (verse 11) For the rest, and passing by the matters to which I have been referring, I desire you to rejoice in your Christian privileges and hopes; study daily to improve, and thus make progress towards perfection (St. Thomas); exhort, or as the Syriac reads, console one another in affliction or trouble, or otherwise, be consoled, for by God’s help all will in the end be well; try to be at concord in your views and sentiments; and live at peace with one another. God, who is the author of charity and peace, will be with you through His grace and charity. For God is charity, and who dwells in charity, dwells in God, and God in him. He is the God of peace, both as the author and proclaimer of peace between heaven and earth, pardon and reconciliation, to men of goodwill; and because his Gospel promotes peace among mankind, and his people live at peace with one another. And the God of charity, because he is charity himself, and love continually flows forth from the fountain of his sacred heart to ours; charity between God and man, and charity between Christians to one another.

(verse 12) Salute one another with a holy kiss, the symbol of a holy affection. Saint Chrysostom says: We are the temple of God, and of this temple the mouth is the vestibule, because by the visible channel of this vestibule Christ enters into us when we communicate. Therefore we kiss the threshold of the temple. St. Chrysostom. All the Saints, the Christians at Philippi in Macedonia, where this epistle was written.

The grace of salvation was sent us by the charity of God, and communicated to us by the Holy Spirit. All the elements of salvation are therefore included in this blessing. Ambrose.

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