The Divine Lamp

The unfolding of thy words gives light; it imparts understanding to the simple…Make thy face shine upon thy servant, and teach me thy statutes

Archive for January 30th, 2012

My Notes on Psalm 119:9-14

Posted by Dim Bulb on January 30, 2012

BACKGROUND~According to Father Clifford the first 16 verses serve as a prologue to the entire Psalm, stating both the goal intended by the author and introducing dominante themes.

The psalmist opens by declaring what constitutes blessedness:

Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of the Lord. Blessed are they that search his testimonies: that seek him with their whole heart. For they that work iniquity, have not walked in his ways.! (1-3).

This is what God has commanded: Thou hast commanded thy commandments to be kept most diligently (4), and so the psalmist pleads that he may do so: O! that my ways may be directed to keep thy justifications! (5). This desire is based upon the consequences: Then shall I not be confounded, when I shall look into all thy commandments. I will praise thee with uprightness of heart, when I shall have learned the judgments of thy justice. I will keep thy justifications: O! do not thou utterly forsake me. (6-8).

NOTES:

Psa 119:9  By what doth a young man correct his way? by observing thy words.

The Psalmist is apparently a young man and has only recently committed himself wholeheartedly to the Torah: I have thought on my ways: and turned my feet unto thy testimonies (59). It’s possible he had begun to run with a bad crowd and they have turned on him, if so, this might be the humbling of which he speaks latter in the Psalm:  Before I was humbled I offended; therefore have I kept thy word. Thou art good; and in thy goodness teach me thy justifications. The iniquity of the proud hath been multiplied over me: but I will seek thy commandments with my whole heart. Their heart is curdled like milk: but I have meditated on thy law. It is good for me that thou hast humbled me, that I may learn thy justifications (67-71).

As the verse (9) we are commenting on indicates, he knows that a man’s moral life, his way, is guarded according to God’s word.  Perhaps that word itself brought him to the realization that youth, while it should be enjoyed, is also fleeting, and now without a future judgement (see Ecclesiastes 11:7-12:1). Perhaps he has recalled from his early youth the instructions of a pious father regarding good and evil (see Proverbs 4). Perhaps he had a Rabbi in his youth who was a spiritual father to him, as St Paul was to St Timothy: flee thou youthful desires, and pursue justice, faith, charity and peace with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart (2 Tim 2:22 DRV).

Psa 119:10  With my whole heart have I sought after thee: let me not stray from thy commandments.

the line recalls the second beatitude with which the Psalm opened:  Blessed are they that search his testimonies: that seek him with their whole heart (2).

With my whole heart recalls the beginning of the famous shema prayer: Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy whole strength. And these words which I command thee this day, shall be in thy heart: And thou shalt tell them to thy children, and thou shalt meditate upon them sitting in thy house, and walking on thy journey, sleeping and rising (Deut 6:4-7).

Here, perhaps, he has in mind his forefathers: And they remembered that God was their helper: and the most high God their redeemer. And they loved him with their mouth: and with their tongue they lied unto him:  But their heart was not right with him: nor were they counted faithful in his covenant (Ps 78:35-37).

Psa 119:11  Thy words have I hidden in my heart, that I may not sin against thee.

Hidden in my heart, like a precious treasure hidden in a field (Matt 13:44). The Torah was held to be the embodiment of wisdom (Deut 4:5-8), and a treasure beyond price:  My son, if thou wilt receive my words, and wilt hide my commandments with thee, That thy ear may hearken to wisdom: incline thy heart to know prudence. For if thou shalt call for wisdom, and incline thy heart to prudence: If thou shalt seek her as money, and shalt dig for her as for a treasure: Then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord, and shalt find the knowledge of God: Because the Lord giveth wisdom: and out of his mouth cometh prudence and knowledge (Prov 2:1-6).

The heart is the proper place in which to treasure God’s revelation: Mary kept all these words, pondering them in her heart (Luke 2:19).  Let the word of Christ dwell in you abundantly: in all wisdom, teaching and admonishing one another in psalms, hymns and spiritual canticles, singing in grace in your hearts to God (Col 3:16).

Psa 119:12  Blessed art thou, O Lord: teach me thy justifications.

Justifications is a translation of the Greek  δικαιωματα. You could also translate it “teach me your righteousness.”  The Hebrew has חקיך, enactments, statutes.

On this and the previous verse St Augustine writes: “Thy words have I hid within my heart, that I may not sin against Thee” (verse 11). He at once sought the Divine aid, lest the words of God might be hidden without fruit in his heart, unless works of righteousness followed. For after saying this, he added, “Blessed art Thou, O Lord, teach me Thy justifications.” (verse 12). “Teach me,” he saith, as they learn who do them; not as they who merely remember them, that they may have somewhat to speak of. Why then doth he say, “Teach me Thy justifications,” save because he wisheth to learn them by deeds, not by speaking or retaining them in his memory? Since then, as it is read in another Psalm, “He shall give blessing, who gave the law;” therefore, “Blessed art Thou, O Lord,” he saith, “teach me Thy justifications.” For because I have hidden Thy words in my heart, that I may not sin against Thee, Thou hast given a law; give also the blessing of Thy grace, that by doing right I may learn what Thou by teaching hast commanded”.

Psa 119:13  With my lips I have pronounced all the judgments of thy mouth.

I have pronounced. Both the Greek εξηγγειλα, and the Hebrew  ספרתי, imply the idea of celebratory public narrative: Thou that liftest me up from the gates of death, that I may declare (εξηγγειλα, ספרתי,) all thy praises in the gates of the daughter of Sion (Ps 9:14 Hebrew, 9:15 Greek).

Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. A good man out of a good treasure bringeth forth good things…(Matt 12:34-35).

The word may be hidden (treasured) in his heart, but it is not to remain there, unfruitful, unproductive. The word is nigh thee; even in thy mouth and in thy heart. This is the word of faith, which we preach. For if thou confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in thy heart that God hath raised him up from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For, with the heart, we believe unto justice: but, with the mouth, confession is made unto salvation. For the scripture saith: Whosoever believeth in him shall not be confounded (Rom 10:8-11).

And calling them, they charged them not to speak at all, nor teach in the name of Jesus. But Peter and John answering, said to them: If it be just, in the sight of God, to hear you rather than God, judge ye. For we cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard (Acts 4:18-20).

St Augustine: “With my lips I have pronounced all the judgments of thy mouth.” that is, I have kept silent nothing of Thy judgments, which Thou didst will should become known to me through Thy words, but I have been telling of all of them without exception with my lips. This he seemeth to me to signify, since he saith not, all Thy judgments, but, “all the judgments of Thy mouth;” that is, which Thou hast revealed unto me: that by His mouth we may understand His word, which He hath discovered unto us in many revelations of the Saints, and in the two Testaments; all which judgments the Church ceaseth not to declare at all times with her lips.

Psa 119:14  I have been delighted in the way of thy testimonies, as in all riches.

The way of thy testimonies.The psalmist delights in following the Torah of God, not just the mere knowledge of it.

As in all riches. Recall the comments on verse 11 above.

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Pope John Paul II’s Commentary/Meditation on Psalm 147:1-11

Posted by Dim Bulb on January 30, 2012

The Pope’s commentary/meditation on the second part of this Psalm (i.e, Ps 147:12-20) can be found here.

“Praise the Lord!’

1. The Psalm just sung is the first part of a composition that also includes the next Psalm, n. 147[146], that the original Hebrew had kept as one. It was the ancient Greek and Latin versions which divided the song into two different Psalms.

The Psalm begins with an invitation to praise God and then lists a long series of reasons to praise him, all expressed in the present tense. These are activities of God considered as characteristic and ever timely, but they could not be more different:  some concern God’s interventions in human life (cf. Ps 147[146]: 3, 6, 11) and in particular for Jerusalem and Israel (cf. v. 2); others concern the created cosmos (cf. v. 4) and more specifically, the earth with its flora and fauna (cf. vv. 8-10).

Finally, in telling us what pleases the Lord, the Psalm invites us to have a two-dimensional outlook:  of religious reverence and of confidence (cf. v. 11). We are not left to ourselves nor to the mercy of cosmic energies, but are always in the hands of the Lord, for his plan of salvation.

2. After the festive invitation to praise the Lord (cf. v. 1), the Psalm unfolds in two poetic and spiritual movements. In the first (vv. 2-6), God’s action in history is introduced with the image of a builder who is rebuilding Jerusalem, restored to life after the Babylonian Exile (cf. v. 2). However, this great mason who is the Lord also shows himself to be a father, leaning down to tend his people’s inner and physical wounds humiliated and oppressed (cf. v. 3).

Let us make room for St Augustine who, in the Enarrationes in Psalmos 146 which he gave at Carthage in the year 412, commented on the sentence “the Lord heals the brokenhearted” as follows: “Those whose hearts are not broken cannot be healed…. Who are the brokenhearted? The humble. And those who are not brokenhearted? The proud. However, the broken heart is healed, and the heart swollen with pride is cast to the ground. Indeed, it is probable that once broken it can be set aright, it can be healed. “He heals the brokenhearted, and binds up their wounds…’. In other words, he heals the humble of heart, those who confess, who are punished, who are judged with severity so that they may experience his mercy. This is what heals. Perfect health, however, will be achieved at the end of our present mortal state when our corruptible being is reinvested with incorruptibility, and our moral being with immortality” (cf. 5-8: Esposizioni sui Salmi, IV, Rome 1977, pp. 772-779).

3. God’s action, however, does not only concern uplifting his people from suffering. He who surrounds the poor with tenderness and care towers like a severe judge over the wicked (cf. v. 6). The Lord of history is not impassive before the domineering who think they are the only arbiters in human affairs:  God casts the haughty to the dusty ground, those who arrogantly challenge heaven (cf. I Sam 2: 7-8; Lk 1: 51-53).

God’s action, however, is not exhausted in his lordship over history; he is also the King of creation:  the whole universe responds to his call as Creator. Not only does he determine the boundless constellations of stars, but he names each one and hence defines its nature and characteristics (cf. Ps 147[146]: 4).

The Prophet Isaiah sang: “Lift up your eyes on high and see:  who created these [the stars]? He who brings out their host by number, calling them all by name” (Is 40: 26). The “hosts” of the Lord are therefore the stars. The Prophet Baruch continued: “The stars shone in their watches and were glad; he called them, and they said, “Here we are!’. They shone with gladness for him who made them” (Bar 3: 34-35).

4. Another joyful invitation to sing praises (cf. Ps 147[146]: 7) preludes the second phase of Psalm 147[146] (cf. vv. 7-11). Once again God’s creative action in the cosmos comes to the fore. In a territory where drought is common, as it is in the East, the first sign of divine love is the rain that makes the earth fertile (cf. v. 8). In this way the Creator prepares food for the animals. Indeed, he even troubles to feed the tiniest of living creatures, like the young ravens that cry with hunger (cf. v. 9). Jesus was to ask us to look at the birds of the air; “they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them” (Mt 6: 26; cf. also Lk 12: 24, with an explicit reference to “ravens”).

Yet once again our attention shifts from creation to human life. Thus, the Psalm ends by showing the Lord stooping down to the just and humble (cf. Ps 147[146]: 10-11), as was declared in the first part of our hymn (cf. v. 6). Two symbols of power are used, the horse and the legs of a man running, to intimate that divine conduct does not give in to or let power intimidate it. Once again, the Lord’s logic is above pride and the arrogance of power, and takes the side of those who are faithful, who “hope in his steadfast love” (v. 11), that is, who abandon themselves to God’s guidance in their acts and thoughts, in their planning and in their daily life.

It is also among them that the person praying must take his place, putting his hope in the Lord’s grace, certain that he will be enfolded in the mantle of divine love:  “The eye of the Lord is on those who fear him, on those who hope in his steadfast love, that he may deliver their soul from death, and keep them alive in famine…. Yea, our heart is glad in him, because we trust in his holy name” (Ps 33[32]: 18-19, 21).

 

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Bishop MacEvily’s Commentary on 1 Corinthians 9:16-19, 22-23

Posted by Dim Bulb on January 30, 2012

This is the second Reading for the fifth Sunday in Ordinary Time, Year B. I’ve included the Bishop’s brief summary of the entire chapter, followed by his notes on the reading. Additionally, I’ve also included the Bishop’s paraphrase of the text he is commenting on. These paraphrases appear in purple text.

A Summary Analysis of 1 Corinthians 9:1-27~The Apostle had proposed his own example (1 Cor 8:13) with the view of inducing the Corinthians to forbear scandalizing their weaker brethren. He continues the subject in this chapter, and he shows the painful sacrifices to which he had submitted in forfeiting his rightful claims to support at Corinth, which he was perfectly free to enforce; and those sacrifices he made, lest he might in any way impede the progress of the gospel. From this he leaves it to be inferred, that they should abstain from things in themselves indifferent, and involving no great sacrifice, in order to avoid the scandal of their brethren. He first establishes his Apostleship (verse 1-4). In the next place, he points out certain privileges which he had a right to claim in common with the other Apostles (4-7). He proves from several sources his right to receive sustenance from the Corinthians (7-15). But he refrained from enforcing this right, although it was hard for him to forego it, lest he might retard the progress of the gospel; nor will he receive any support from them even in future, lest he might be deprived of the special glory and crown attached to the gratuitous discharge of the duties of his sacred ministry (15-19). In the
next place, he develops the idea expressed in verse 1 (“am I not free!”) and shows how he sacrificed even his personal liberty to procure the salvation of others, and thus to become a sharer in common with them in the blessings of eternal life (19-24). The mention of the prize of eternal life suggests to the Apostle an expressive image of the value of this prize, and the difficulty of securing it, conveyed in the price and difficulty of a crown at the Grecian games. He continues this subject of the difficulty of salvation, to verse 14 of next chapter.

1Co 9:16  For if I preach the gospel, it is no glory to me: for a necessity lieth upon me. For woe is unto me if I preach not the gospel.

But, in what does my peculiar subject for glorying consist . In the mere preaching of the gospel? By no means; for, if I merely preach the gospel, I have no peculiar subject wherein to glory. I do only what I must do; for, woe to me if I neglect preaching the gospel.

This peculiar matter for glorying cannot consist in the mere act of preaching the gospel; since, in doing so, he only does what he is bound to do, under pain of eternal woe.

1Co 9:17  For if I do this thing willingly, I have a reward: but if against my will, a dispensation is committed to me.

If I discharge this indispensable duty of preaching, with alacrity and with the proper dispositions, I shall be entitled to the essential reward attached to so exalted a function; (I shall not, however, have the peculiar matter for glorying referred to), if I do this work from bad or unworthy motives, I lose a reward, but my ministry, however, is not to be undervalued; for, still, I act as a dispenser of the mysteries of Christ.

“Willingly,” εκων (hekōn), i.e., with proper dispositions. If I perform the act of preaching the gospel witfi the proper dispositions, receiving, at the same time, the necessary means of support-the recompense to which all laws, human and divine, give me a claim-“I have a reward,” i.e., the essential reward attached to preaching the gospel; but not the special, accidental glory and reward attached to preaching it, not only with proper dispositions, but also gratuitously, as had been done by the Apostle. “If against my will,” ακων (akōn), i.e., from sordid, unworthy motives; then, I lose all reward ; however, “a dispensation is committed to me” (οικονομιαν πεπιστευμαι), i.e., I am still the dispenser of the mysteries of Christ, and, hence, my ministry is not to be under-valued or rejected in consequence of the unworthy motives by which I may be actuated. Estius, in hunc locum. Others, with Lapide and Piconio, understand “willingly” to mean gratuitously, and “reward,” to mean a special reward attached to gratuitous preaching, and “against my will,” to mean, with the prospect of just temporal retribution. The former interpretation, however, seems preferable; for, the Apostle appears to consider four classes of preachers the first, those who omit the duty of preaching. Eternal woe is to be their lot. A second, those who preach the gospel with proper dispositions, and receive temporal compensation. They are entitled to the reward attached to the discharge of this exalted function. A third, those who discharge this duty from corrupt motives; and although their ministry, in a spiritual point of view, proves of no service to themselves, still, it is not to be undervalued or despised by others; for, they deal out the treasure of heavenly mysteries entrusted to their keeping. A fourth class of which he himself is the type those who preach gratuitously, and these are entitled to special glory and rewards. The interpretation of Estius, adopted in Paraphrase, assigns the more natural meaning of the words, “against my will.” For, a man who performs anything preceptive, even with a view of temporal remuneration, could hardly be said to have done so, “against his will.”

1Co 9:18  What is my reward then? That preaching the gospel, I may deliver the gospel without charge, that I abuse not my power in the gospel.

In what, then, consists my peculiar matter for glorying; my peculiar title to a special reward, sooner than forfeit which I would die (verse 15). In this; that, while preaching the gospel, I do so gratuitously, and abstain from fully enforcing my right to support and temporal remuneration, founded on the fact of my preaching the gospel.

“What then is my reward?”  He says, emphatically, “my reward,” to distinguish it from the reward, verse 17. “My reward,” as appears from the following words, means the cause or matter for reward; it is the same as “my glory,” verse 15:- From the whole passage, it appears quite clear, that the conduct of the Apostle in refusing any temporal compensation from the Corinthians, was a work of supererogation, to which he was not bound either in the abstract (as is clear from the fact of the other Apostles receiving support, and his receiving it himself from the Macedonians), or, in the circumstances; for, he might have explained his claims to support, and thus have removed all legitimate grounds of offence or unfair suspicions on the part of the Corinthians. Moreover, he says that even were compensation offered him, after the explanation given, he would still refuse it (verse 15); in which case, he, certainly, would not be bound to forego his just claims.

OBJECTION. He calls a departure from his present line of conduct “an abuse,” and hence, it was a matter of precept for him to act as he did.

RESPONSE. The Greek word for “abuse,”  καταχρησασθαι, simply means, to use fully. It has this meaning (1 Cor 7:31). St. Chrysostom, by “abuse,” here understands to use a lesser goodminore bono uti-as opposed to a greater, but not to a precept. Hence, the words mean that I might not use to the full extent (as it would be the exercise of a lesser good), my rights in the gospel.

1Co 9:19  For whereas I was free as to all, I made myself the servant of all, that I might gain the more

For, although free from all human servitude, whether in regard to Jew or Gentile; I, still, made myself the slave of all in order to gain all to Christ.

The Apostle, having referred to the sacrifice which he himself had made, when foregoing his claims to support, as a motive to induce the Corinthians to forego in favour of their weaker brethren, claims involving little or no sacrifice, now adduces another example of heroic charity still more arduous than the preceding, as it was, in a certain sense, the sacrifice of his liberty.

“For whereas I was free as to all,” &c. These words would appear to correspond with the words, verse 1, “Am I not free?” and are, according to some Commentators, a more full explanation of the same. He had, in the preceding, shown his rights as an Apostle, and the sacrifices he made; he now shows how he gave up his freedom, in the cause of the Gospel.

1Co 9:22  To the weak I became weak, that I might gain the weak. I became all things to all men, that I might save all.

With the uninstructed and scrupulous, I became as a weak ignorant person, accommodating myself, as far as possible, from a feeling of tender compassion, to their weakness, in order to win over persons of this class. In one word, I became all to all, in order to save all.

These words, of course, can only mean, that the Apostle went as far in accommodating himself to every description of persons, as the laws of virtue and religion would permit. He became all to all, says St. Augustine-compassione misericordia, non simulatione fallacia-and again, non mentientis actu, sed compatientis affectu. (Epistles, 9 and 19, ad Hieronymum.) “That I might save all.” In Greek, ινα παντως τινας σωσω, that I might by all means save some. The Vulgate is supported by some of the chief manuscripts, and by the Arabic and Ethiopic versions.

1Co 9:23  And I do all things for the gospel’s sake, that I may be made partaker thereof.

And, although I labor gratuitously and disinterestedly for others, I am not still forgetful of my eternal interests. I do all things for the advancement of the gospel, in order that with you I may share in its promises and rewards.

He says, that although regardless of temporal interests, there is one interest, however, which he has constantly in view, as the aim of all his actions, and that is, the interest of eternal salvation. “All things,” the common Greek text has, τουτο, this; but παντα, all things, is read in the chief MSS., and preferred by critics generally. “That I may be made partaker thereof.” The Greek word for partaker, συγκοινωνος, means, partaker in common, which shows the great humility of the Apostle seeking only for the same crown that was in store for the Corinthians. What an important lesson is conveyed in these words of the Apostle, for those who are engaged in the salvation of others! What will it avail them to have saved thousands of others, if they themselves are lost? With the Apostle they should, therefore, constantly strive, while labouring for the salvation of their brethren, to be themselves sharers with them in the blessings of eternal life. They should frequently pray for the gift of the only true wisdom, viz., the wisdom of salvation.

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Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Mark 6:30-34

Posted by Dim Bulb on January 30, 2012

Ver 30. And the Apostles gathered themselves together unto Jesus, and told Him all things, both what they had done, and what they had taught.31. And He said unto them, “Come ye yourselves apart into a desert place, and rest a while:” for there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat.32. And they departed into a desert place by ship privately.33. And the people saw them departing, and many knew Him, and ran afoot thither out of all cities, and outwent them, and came together unto Him.34. And Jesus, when He came out, saw many people, and was moved with compassion toward them, because they were as sheep not having a shepherd: and He began to teach themmany things.

Gloss.: The Evangelist, after relating the death of John, gives an account of those things which Christ did with His disciples after the death of John, saying, “And the Apostles gathered themselves together unto Jesus, and told Him all things, both what they had done, and what they had taught.”

Pseudo-Jerome: For they return to the fountain-head whence the streams flow; those who are sent by God, always offer up thanks for those things which they have received.

Theophylact: Let us also learn, when we are sent on any mission, not to go far away, and not to overstep the bounds of the office committed, but to go often to him, who sends us, and report all that we have done and taught; for we must not only teach but act.

Bede: Not only do the Apostles tell the Lord what they themselves had done and taught, but also His own and John’s disciples together tell Him what John had suffered, during the time that they were occupied in teaching, as Matthew relates.  It goes on: “And He said to them, Come ye yourselves apart, &c.”

Augustine, de Con. Evan., 2, 45: This is said to have taken place, after the passion of John, therefore what is first related took place last, for it was by these events that Herod was moved to say, “This is John the Baptist, whom I beheaded.”

Theophylact: Again, He goes into a desert place from His humility. But Christ makes His disciples rest, that men who are set over others may learn, that they who labour in any work or in the word deserve rest, and ought not to labour continually.

Bede: How arose the necessity for giving rest to His disciples, He shews, when He adds, “For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat;” we may then see how great was the happiness of that time, both from the toil of the teachers, and from the diligence of the learners.  It goes on: “And embarking in a ship, they departed into a desert place privately.”

The disciples did not enter into the ship alone, but taking up the Lord with them, they went to a desert place, as Matthew shews. [Matt 14] Here He tries the faith of the multitude, and by seeking a desert place He would see whether they care to follow Him. And they follow Him, and not on horseback, nor in carriages, but laboriously coming on foot, they shew how great is their anxiety for their salvation.

There follows: “And the people saw them departing, and many knew Him, and ran afoot [p. 120] thither out of all cities, and outwent them.”

In saying that they outwent them on foot, it is proved that the disciples with the Lord did not reach the other bank of the sea, or of the Jordan, but they went to the nearest places of the same country, where the people of those parts could come to them on foot.

Theophylact: So do thou not wait for Christ till He Himself call you, but outrun Him, and come before Him.

There follows: “And Jesus when He came out saw many people, and was moved with compassion towards them, because they were as sheep having no shepherd.”

The Pharisees being ravening wolves did not feed the sheep, but devoured them; for which reason they gather themselves to Christ, the true Shepherd, who gave them spiritual food, that is, the word of God.  Wherefore it goes on: “And He began to teach them many things.”

For seeing that those who followed Him on account of His miracles were tired from the length of the way, He pitied them, and wished to satisfy their wish by teaching them.

Bede, in Marc., 2, 26: Matthew says that He healed their sick, for the real way of pitying the poor is to open to them the way of truth by teaching them, and to take away their bodily pains.

Pseudo-Jerome: Mystically, however, the Lord took apart those whom He chose, that though living amongst evil men, they might not apply their minds to evil things, as Lot in Sodom, Job in the land of Uz, and Obadiah in the house of Ahab.

Bede, in Marc., 2, 25: Leaving also Judaea, the holy preachers, in the desert of the Church, overwhelmed by the burden of their tribulations amongst the Jews, obtained rest by the imparting of the grace of faith to the Gentiles.

Pseudo-Jerome: Little indeed is the rest of the saints here on earth, long is their labour, but afterwards, they are bidden to rest from their labours. But as in the ark of Noah, the animals that were within were sent forth, and they that were without rushed in, so is it in the Church, Judas went, the thief came to Christ. But as long as men go back from the faith, the Church can have no refuge from grief; for Rachel weeping for her children would not be comforted. Moreover, this world is not the banquet, in which the new wine is drank, when the new song will be sung by men made anew, when this mortal shall have put on immortality.

Bede, in Marc., 2, 26: But when Christ  goes to the deserts of the Gentiles, many bands of the faithful leaving the walls of their cities, that is their old manner of living, follow Him.

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