The Divine Lamp

The unfolding of thy words gives light; it imparts understanding to the simple…Make thy face shine upon thy servant, and teach me thy statutes

Archive for July 26th, 2013

This Week’s Posts: Sunday, July 28-Sunday, August 4, 2013

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 26, 2013

PLEASE NOTE: unless indicated otherwise, all commentaries and introductions relating to a Responsorial are for the entire Psalm, not to the selected verses.

SUNDAY, JULY 28, 2013
SEVENTEENTH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME
DOMINICA X POST PENTECOSTEN~II. CLASSIS

RESOURCES FOR SUNDAY MASS (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms).

Last Week’s Posts: Sunday, July 21–Sunday, July 28.

MONDAY, JULY 29, 2013
MEMORIAL OF ST MARTHA

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s 1st Reading (Exodus 32:15-24, 30-34).

Update: Bishop Knecht’s Practical Commentary on Today’s 1st Reading (Exodus 32:15-24, 30-34). St Joe Of O Blog. Fairly brief, on all of chapter 32.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 106).

Update: A Patristic/Medieval Commentary on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 106:19-23).

St Augustine’s Notes on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 106). Whole Psalm.

Update: Some Brief Notes on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 106:19-23). St Joe of O Blog.

St Cyril of Alexandria’s Homiletic Commentary on Today’s Gospel (John 11:19-27). On 17-27.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (John 11:19-27). On 17-27.

Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Today’s Gospel (John 11:19-27).

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s Gospel (John 11:19-27).

TUESDAY, JULY 30, 2013
TUESDAY OF THE SEVENTEENTH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s 1st Reading (Exodus 33:7-11, 34:5b-9, 28).

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 103).

St Augustine’s Notes on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 103).

Update: Patristic/Medieval Commentary on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 103:6-13). Includes verse 14.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:36-43).

Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:36-43).

Father Maas’ Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:36-43).

Cornelius a Lapide’s Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matt 13:36-43).

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:36-43).

WEDNESDAY, JULY 31, 2013
MEMORIAL OF ST IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA, PRIEST

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s 1st Reading (Exodus 34:29-35).

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 99).

St Augustine’s Notes on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 99).

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 99).

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:44-46).

Maldonado’s Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:44-46).

Father Maas’ Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:44-46).

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:44-46).

THURSDAY, AUGUST 1, 2013
ST ALPHONSUS LIGUORI, BISHOP AND DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s 1st Reading (Exodus 40:16-21, 34-38).

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 84).

St Augustine’s Notes on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 84).

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:47-53).

Maldonado’s Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:47-53).

Father Maas’ Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:47-53).

Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:47-53).

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:47-53).

FRIDAY, AUGUST 2, 2013
FRIDAY OF THE SEVENTEENTH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s 1st Reading (Leviticus 23:1, 4-11, 15-16, 27, 34b-37).

Pending: Father Boylan’s Introduction to Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 81).

St Augustine’s Notes on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 81).

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 81).

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:54-58). On 53-58.

Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:54-58).

Father Maas’ Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:54-58).

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 13:54-58).

SATURDAY, AUGUST 3, 2013
SATURDAY OF THE SEVENTEENTH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s 1st Reading (Leviticus 25:1, 8-17).

Pending: Father Boylan’s INtroduction to Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 67).

St Augustine’s Notes on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 67).

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 67).

Lectio Divina Notes on Today’s Responsorial (Psalm 67).

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 14:1-12).

Father Callan’s Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 14:1-12).

Father Maas’ Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 14:1-12).

Pending: Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 14:1-12).

Navarre Bible Commentary on Today’s Gospel (Matthew 14:1-12).

SUNDAY, AUGUST 4, 2013
EIGHTEENTH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME
ELEVENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST
Dominica XI Post Pentecosten I. Augusti ~ II. classis

RESOURCES FOR SUNDAY MASS (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms of the Rite). Usually posted on Wednesday evenings, but sometimes on Tues. or Thurs. evenings.

Next Week’s Posts: Sunday, August 4-Sunday, August 11. Mostly complete.

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Father Maas’ Commentary on Matthew 13:54-58

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 26, 2013

PRELIMINARIES: The following verses (54-58) inform us of Christ’s rejection in Nazareth. How can the present passage of the first gospel be harmonized with its seeming parallel of the third [Lk. 4:16–30]? Augustine, Chrysostom, Faber Stapulensis, Jansenius, Maldonado, Barradas, Sylveira, Lapide, Grimm, Schanz, Cornely, etc. contend that the two gospels refer to the same incident, the time of which must be determined either by the third or the first gospel. Both of these views are open to serious difficulties. Again, the third gospel mentions incidents connected with our Lord’s visit to Nazareth not only different from those recorded in the first and second [Mk. 6:1 ff.], but incompatible with them; e. g. the miracles related in the first and second gospel cannot be placed before the attempted violence [Lk. 4:23] nor after it, while the violence narrated by Luke is hardly compatible with the peaceful narratives of Matthew and Mark. Then, why should Matthew especially, intent as he is on proving the guilt of those Jews who rejected Jesus, omit the violence of the men of Nazareth, if he narrated the visit to Nazareth described in the third gospel? Finally, it is highly probable that Jesus gave his fellow citizens more than one opportunity of entering the kingdom. Arnoldi, Schegg, Bisping, Fillion, Keil. Edersheim, Storr, Wieseler, Ebrard, Godet, Krafft, Tischendorf, Knabenbauer, etc. are therefore justified in assuming that the gospels speak of two different visits of Jesus to Nazareth, the first [Lk. 4:16–30] occurring about December of our Lord’s first year of public life, the second nearly a year later Mt. 13:53 ff.; Mk. 6:1 ff.].

But how harmonize Mk. 6:1 ff. with the present passage of the first gospel? According to the second gospel a number of events intervene between the parables and the visit to Nazareth [cf. 4:35–6:1], while the first gospel narrates the visit immediately after the parables. But the connecting clause is not so stringent in the first gospel as to exclude the events narrated in Mk. 4:40–6:1 from between the parables and the rejection in Nazareth.

Mat 13:54  And coming into his own country, he taught them in their synagogues, so that they wondered and said: How came this man by this wisdom and miracles?
Mat 13:55  Is not this the carpenter’s son? Is not his mother called Mary, and his brethren James, and Joseph, and Simon, and Jude:
Mat 13:56  And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence therefore hath he all these things?
Mat 13:57  And they were scandalized in his regard. But Jesus said to them: A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house.
Mat 13:58  And he wrought not many miracles there, because of their unbelief.

And coming into. “His own country” is the city of Nazareth where Jesus had been brought up, and where his mother lived [cf. Mt. 2:23]. When teaching in “their synagogues” [cf. 4:23.], the people were amazed and said: How came this man [a term of contempt; cf. Jn. 6:42] by this wisdom in his words and power in his action [cf. Origen, St Bruno, Alb. Cajetan, Dionysius, Tostatus, Maldonado, Barradas, Lapide], or by his knowledge and power to work miracles [Chrysostom, Theophylact]? In any case, Jesus must have wrought the miracles mentioned in verse 58 before his appearance in the synagogue. The Greek word rendered “carpenter” may mean a worker in iron, stone, wood, gold, silver, or any other material [cf. Cajetan, Maldonado, Barradas], though it refers more frequently to the “carpenter”; Hilary, Ambrose, Bede, are of opinion that Joseph was a smith, and that our Lord worked at the same trade [cf. Mk. 6:3], but Justin [c. Tryph. 88], Theodoret [E. H. iii. 18], Suicer [cf. Thes. ii. p. 1255], Evang. infantiæ [Arab. c. 38; Tisch. p. 201], Evang. Thomæ [græce c. 13; Tisch. p. 152], testify that Joseph was a carpenter, and according to Mk. 6:3 Jesus followed the same trade, though Origen [c. Cels. vi. 36] must have had a different reading of Mark before him, since he says that Jesus is not called “carpenter” anywhere in the gospel. Concerning the “brethren” and the “sisters” of the Lord, see 12:47. James, called James the Less, was son of Alpheus [Mt. 10:3; Lk. 6:15; Mk. 3:18; Acts 1:13] and of Mary Cleophas [Mt. 27:56; Mk. 15:40; Lk. 24:10; John 19:25]; he was also the “brother of the Lord” [Gal. 1:19], and brother of St. Jude [Lk. 6:16; Acts 1:13; Jude 1]; he was, moreover, “one of the Twelve” [Mt. 10:3], and surnamed the Just [Eusebius H. E. ii. 23]; he was finally first bishop of Jerusalem [Eusebius H. E. ii. 1], and as such took a prominent part in the first Council of Jerusalem [Acts 15:13, 19], received the news of Peter’s release from prison [Acts 12:17], and was favored by a special vision of our Lord [1 Cor. 15:7]. Jude, also called Thaddeus or Lebbeus [Mt. 10:3], and Simon the Zealot [Mt. 10:4], too belonged to the Twelve [cf. Cornely, Introd. iii. pp. 595, 649]. The “sisters” must have been related to Jesus in the same manner as the “brethren”; usually, two are named [cf. Thilo. cod. apocr. p. 363], either Mary Salome and Mary Cleophas [Epiphanius, Theophylact], or Ester and Tamar Hippolytus ap. Niceph. ii. 3]. Though their wonder and their question [vv. 54, 56] should have led to a different result, “they were scandalized,” not as if in strict logic they had derived Christ’s wisdom and miracles from the devil [Tostatus, Dionysius, Maldonado, Arnoldi], but their envy [Chrysostom, Jerome] and the common human weakness which always despises the known and familiar [cf. 1 Sam. 16:11; 17:28; Jn. 4:44; Lk. 4:25 f.; Jerome, Theophylact, Euthymius, Thomas Aquinas, Dionysius Seneca, De ben. iii. 3; Pliny, Hist. nat. xxxv. 36; Grotius] did not permit the rude inhabitants of Nazareth to submit in humble faith to their reputed equal or inferior. This throws additional light on the complete obscurity of the hidden life. The repetition of what had been said on the occasion of Christ’s previous visit to Nazareth [Lk. 4:24] agrees well with similar repetitions of other sayings [cf. Mt. 7:16 and 12:33; Mt. 5:29 and 18:8; Lk. 8:16 and 11:33]. The “unbelief” of Nazareth was not a physical, but a moral impediment of our Lord’s miracles. Chrysostom, Euthymius, Jerome, Bede, Paschasius, are of opinion that Jesus did not work more miracles because he did not wish to increase the guilt of the unbelievers, already inexcusable by reason of those that had been wrought in their city; but the text assigns their unbelief as the reason of our Lord’s limited beneficence.

Posted in Bible, Catholic, Catholic lectionary, Christ, Devotional Resources, Notes on the Gospel of Matthew, Notes on the Lectionary, Scripture | Tagged: , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Matthew 13:54-58

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 26, 2013

Mat 13:54  And coming into his own country, he taught them in their synagogues, so that they wondered and said: How came this man by this wisdom and miracles?

“And coming into His own country.” St. Luke (4:16) says, it was Nazareth, where He was brought up, and, moreover, it was only at Nazareth the people knew His former occupation, habits of life, family and relatives (v. 55). The order of narrative followed by St. Matthew is preferred by many commentators. Others (among them St. Augustine), follow the order of St. Mark (4), Luke (8), both of whom inform us, that after proposing the preceding parable to the multitude, our Redeemer passed into the country of the Gerasens; and St. Mark (4:35) says, that “on that day, when evening was come, He said: Let us pass over to the other side.” However, it may be said in reply, by the advocates of the former opinion, that from St. Mark (4:10) it is clear, the twelve Apostles were with Him, when He spoke the parables. Now, Matthew—one of the twelve—was not called, till after He crossed over to the country of the Gerasens, as appears from Matthew (8 and 9) Hence, the parables were not uttered till after that event, and the words of St. Mark, just quoted, “that day,” will only mean, as St. Luke has it, “on a certain day” (8:22), or about that time, in illo tempore.

St. Luke (4), according to St. Augustine, narrates, by anticipation, the arrival of our Lord at Nazareth, as is clear from the words, “quanta audivimus facta in Capharnaum” (4:23), whereas, at this time He performed no miracles at Capharnaum or anywhere else. Hence, St. Luke records this event by anticipation, because the prophecy read by him in the synagogue from Isaias (Luke 4:18), perfectly accorded with the descent of the Holy Ghost upon him, which St. Luke records as having occurred previously (3:22), and indeed, it was a fitting preparation for the work of preaching the Gospel, which St. Luke commences to narrate.
“He taught them in their synagogues.” Luke (4:17), says He explained the prophecy of Isaias (41:17). “Synagogues,” the plural for the singular; as it is most likely, there was only one synagogue at Nazareth. Or, it might mean, that He taught each Sabbath at their synagogue meetings.

“Wisdom,” shown in His eloquence and reasoning. “Miracles.” St. Mark says (6:5), He wrought some miracles among them, but, “not many,” as we are told here (verse 58). “Wisdom,” in what He said. “Power,” in what He did.

Mat 13:55  Is not this the carpenter’s son? Is not his mother called Mary, and his brethren James, and Joseph, and Simon, and Jude:

“Carpenter’s son?” Jesus was reputed to be the son of Joseph. He is Himself called a carpenter. “Is not this the carpenter?” (Mark 6:3) The Greek for “carpenter,” τεκτων, simply means, a craftsman, or workman, whether in wood, iron, gold, &c. But, the common opinion has always been, that St. Joseph was a carpenter, a worker in wood. Hence, Theodoret relates (Lib. iii. c. 8), that on a certain Sophist, Libanius, scornfully asking a pious Christian of his day, “what the carpenter’s son was doing?” he received for answer, “He is making a coffin for Julian.” The wretched imperial apostate wanted it soon after. Transfixed mortally, by an arrow of a flying Parthian, he was obliged to cry out in despair, “Vicisti Galilee.” His coffin was finished. It is likely, our Lord Himself had worked in holy Joseph’s workshop, during the thirty years of His hidden life at Nazareth. Hence, the Nazarites question, “Is not this the carpenter,” and “the carpenter’s son?”

“And His brethren James, and Joseph, and Simon, and Jude.” “His brethren”—the children of Mary of Cleophas, sister of the Blessed Virgin, were, according to the usual style of Scripture, called “brethren,” that is, cousins or near relations, of the Redeemer.

St. Mark has it (6:3), “Is not this the carpenter, the Son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joseph, and Jude, and Simon?” Now, these brethren of our Lord were not, by any means, the sons of the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph; but the sons of a certain Cleophas, by another Mary. For James, one of the four, is called James of Alpheus (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18); and their mother is called “Mary, the mother of James (the less), and Joseph” (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40). The same Mary is called, Mary of Cleophas (John 19:25). Hence, it is clear the “brethren” of our Lord are His cousins or relations. Thus, Lot, Abraham’s nephew, is called “his brother” (Gen. 13:8), and Laban, Jacob’s uncle, is called his brother also (Gen. 29:15).

Mat 13:56  And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence therefore hath he all these things?
“His sisters,” either on the side of Joseph, His reputed father, or of His mother. That they were poor, and unable to impart any learning or power to our Lord, is here manifestly insinuated. Hence, the question, “Whence therefore hath He all these things?” Mary, the mother of these “brethren,” who was sister, that is, cousin of the Blessed Virgin, is called “Mary of Cleophas” (John 19), by which some understand, the daughter of Cleophas; others, the wife of Cleophas. Of these latter, some maintain, that this Mary was twice married, first to Alpheus, of whom she conceived James and Joseph—hence, James is called, “of Alpheus”—and after his death, to Cleophas, of whom she conceived Simon and Jude (St. Thomas). Others say, that Alpheus and Cleophas referred to the same person, both names being derived from the same common Hebrew root. (Vide Patrizzi, Lib. iii. ix. 13)

Some commentators think that Alpheus was brother of St. Joseph, in which case, these would be “brethren,” or cousins of our Redeemer on His reputed father’s side as well as on His mother’s side. In SS. Scripture, the words, brother and sister, a taken in a very extended sense (as above). The Blessed Virgin, according to tradition, was the only child of Joachim and Anne. Hence, Mary, the mother of these, was not her sister, as some would fain have it. St. John Damascene speaks of St. Anne as having been for a long time barren; and like Anna, the mother of Samuel, of having obtained by prayer the daughter who gave birth to the Son of God. It was by no means customary among the Jews to call two sisters by the same name. Hence, apart from other reasons, the utter improbability, that Mary of Cleophas was sister of the Blessed Virgin by Joachim and Anne. (See Patrizzi, Lib. iii. c. ix)

Mat 13:57  And they were scandalized in his regard. But Jesus said to them: A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house.
“Scandalized in His regard.” They took occasion of offence and unbelief from the lowness of His extraction, His humble occupation, the poverty of His relatives, &c. They knew He never learned letters. “How can this man know letters, having never learned?” (John 8) Hence, their unbelief, their spiritual ruin, and reprobation, “They were scandalized.”

“A prophet is not without honour,” &c. This was a celebrated adage, common among the Jews. Though generally true, it sometimes admits of exceptions, as in the case of John the Baptist, Isaias, Elias, Daniel, &c., who were honoured by their countrymen. It is, however, generally true, for which various reasons are assigned: such as the jealous feelings of envy among one’s fellow citizens; again, familiarity is apt to beget contempt, both from a close inspection of human imperfections, and also, because what is foreign, and what comes from afar, is more apt to be prized and admired by mankind, than what is domestic and easily procured.

Mat 13:58  And he wrought not many miracles there, because of their unbelief.

“And He wrought not many miracles,” &c. Our Redeemer was wont to work miracles to confirm the faith of those who believed and sought for them, but not to gratify the curiosity of the incredulous. On this account it was, that He wrought so few miracles among the people of Nazareth, on account of their scornful and obstinate unbelief. Hence, St. Mark (6:5), “He could not do any miracles there, only that He cured a few,” &c., meaning, that He did not wish to work miracles; and, that it was not meet for Him to do so, as they had not faith; and, such miracles would only add to their responsibility, and deepen their damnation. Hence, in His mercy. He refrained from performing wonders among them.

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Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Matthew 13:53-58

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 26, 2013

Ver 53. And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence.54. And when he was come into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, insomuch that they were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these mighty works?55. Is not this the carpenter’s son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?56. And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things?57. And they were offended in him. But Jesus said unto them, “A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house.”58. And he did not many mighty works there because of their unbelief.

Jerome: After the parables which the Lord spake to the people, and which the Apostles only understand, He goes over into His own country that He may teach there also.

Aug., De Cons. Ev., ii, 42: From the foregoing discourse consisting of these parables, He passes to what follows without any very evident connexion between them. Besides which, Mark passes from these parables to a different event from what Matthew here gives; and Luke agrees with him, so continuing the thread of the story as to make it much more probable that that which they relate followed here, namely, about the ship in which Jesus slept, and the miracle of the daemons cast out; which Matthew has introduced above.

Chrys., Hom., xlviii: By “his own country” here, He means Nazareth; for it was not there but in Capharnaum that, as is said below, He wrought so many miracles; but to these He shews His doctrine, causing no less wonder than His miracles.

Remig.: He taught in their synagogues where great numbers were met, because it was for the salvation of the multitude that He came from heaven upon earth.

It follows; “So that they marvelled, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these many mighty works?” His wisdom is referred to His doctrine, His mighty works to His miracles

Jerome: Wonderful folly of the Nazarenes! They wonder whence Wisdom itself has wisdom, whence Power has mighty works! But the source of their error is at hand, because they regard Him as the Son of a carpenter; as they say, “Is not this the carpenter’s son?”

Chrys.: Therefore were they in all things insensate, seeing they lightly esteemed Him on account of him who was regarded as His father, notwithstanding the many instances in old times of sons illustrious sprung from ignoble fathers; as David was the son of a husbandman, Jesse; Amos the son of a shepherd, himself a shepherd.

And they ought to have given Him more abundant honour, because, that coming of such parents, He spake after such manner; clearly shewing that it came not of human industry, but of divine grace

Pseudo-Aug., non occ., cf. Serm. 135: For the Father of Christ is that Divine Workman who made all these works of nature, who set forth Noah’s ark, who ordained the tabernacle of Moses, and instituted the Ark of the covenant; that Workman who polishes the stubborn mind, and cuts down the proud thoughts.

Hilary: And this was the carpenter’s son who subdues iron by means of fire, who tries the virtue of this world in the judgment, and forms the rude mass to every work of human need; the figure of our bodies, for example, to the divers ministrations of the limbs, and all the actions of life eternal.

Jerome: And when they are mistaken in His Father, no wonder if they are also mistaken in His brethren. Whence it is added, “Is not his mother Mary, and his brethren, James, and Joseph, and Simon, and Judas? And his sisters, are they not all with us?

Jerome, Hieron. in Helvid., 14: Those who are here called the Lord’s brethren, are the sons of a Mary, His Mother’s sister; she is the mother of this James and Joseph, that is to say, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and this is the Mary who is called the mother of James the Less.

Aug., Quaest. in Matt., q. 17: No wonder then that any kinsmen by the mother’s side should be called the Lord’s brethren, when even by their kindred to Joseph some are here called His brethren by those who thought Him the son of Joseph.

Hilary: Thus the Lord is held in no honour by His own; and though the wisdom of His teaching, and the power of His working raised their admiration, yet do they not believe that He did these things in the name of the Lord, and they cast His father’s trade in His teeth.

Amid all the wonderful works which He did they were moved with the contemplation of His Body, and hence they ask, “Whence hath this man these things? And thus they were offended in him.”

Jerome: This error of the Jews is our salvation, and the condemnation of the heretics, for they perceived Jesus Christ to be man so far as to think Him the son of a carpenter.

Chrys.: Observe Christ’s mercifulness; He is evil spoken of, yet He answers with mildness; “Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, but in his own country, and in his own house.”

Remig.: He calls Himself a Prophet, as Moses also declares, when he says, “A Prophet shall God raise up unto you of your brethren. [Deu_18:18] And it should be known, that not Christ only, who is the Head of all the Prophets, but Jeremiah, Daniel, and the other lesser Prophets, had more honour and regard among strangers than among their own citizens.

Jerome: For it is almost natural for citizens to be jealous towards one another; for they do not look to the present works of the man, but remember the frailties of his childhood; as if they themselves had not passed through the very same stages of age to their maturity.

Hilary: Further, He makes this answer, that a Prophet is without honour in his own country, because it was in Judea that He was to be condemned to the sentence of the cross; and forasmuch as the power of God is for the faithful alone, He here abstained from worlds of divine power because of their unbelief.

Whence it follows, “And he did not there many mighty works because of their unbelief.”

Jerome: Not that because they did not believe He could not do His mighty works; but that He might not by doing them be condemning His fellow-citizens in their unbelief.

Chrys.: But if His miracles raised their wonder, why did He not work many? Because He looked not to display of Himself, but to what would profit others; and when that did not result, He despised what pertained only to Himself that He might not increase their punishment. Why then did He even these few miracles? That they should not say, We should have believed had any miracles been done among us.

Jerome: Or we may understand it otherwise, that Jesus is despised in His own house and country, signifies in the Jewish people; and therefore He did among them few miracles, that they might not be altogether without excuse; but among the Gentiles He does daily greater miracles by His Apostles, not so much in healing their bodies, as in saving their souls.

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Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Matthew 13:47-53

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 26, 2013

Mat 13:47  Again the kingdom of heaven is like to a net cast into the sea, and gathering together of all kinds of fishes.

“The kingdom of heaven,” the Gospel doctrine, or, probably, the Church militant here below, “is like to a net (a drag net) cast into the sea.” The Church is cast into this troubled, boisterous, stormy world, in which men are daily exposed and shipwrecked. It is important to keep in mind that the Church and the Kingdom are closely related, but not identical. The Kingdom is mysteriously present in the Church. In the Glossary of The Catechism of the Catholic Church we find this:

KINGDOM OF GOD (OF HEAVEN): The reign or rule of God: “the kingdom of God is … righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit” (Rom 14:17). The Kingdom of God draws near in the coming of the Incarnate Word; it is announced in the Gospel; it is the messianic Kingdom, present in the person of Jesus, the Messiah; it remains in our midst in the Eucharist. Christ gave to his Apostles the work of proclaiming the Kingdom, and through the Holy Spirit forms his people into a priestly kingdom, the Church, in which the Kingdom of God is mysteriously present, for she is the seed and beginning of the Kingdom on earth. In the Lord’s Prayer (“Thy Kingdom come”) we pray for its final glorious appearance, when Christ will hand over the Kingdom to his Father (541–554, 709, 763, 2816, 2819). [Catholic Church. (2000). Catechism of the Catholic Church (2nd Ed.). Washington, DC: United States Catholic Conference.] See Lumen Gentium 3. For more on the Kingdom of God in Scripture listen to Dr. Brant Pitre’s talk JESUS AND THE MYSTERY OF THE KINGDOM.

“And gathering together of all kinds of fishes.” In the Church are found every description of persons, whether bond or free, rich or poor, from every quarter of the globe—saints and sinners—not that any are saints before entering the Church, as the fishes are good before caught in the net. The Parable is not, in this respect, to be urged aa vivum; it only is meant, that in the net, after they have entered it, are found good and bad, saints and sinners.

Mat 13:48  Which, when it was filled, they drew out, and sitting by the shore, they chose out the good into vessels, but the bad they cast forth.
Mat 13:49  So shall it be at the end of the world. The angels shall go out, and shall separate the wicked from among the just.
Mat 13:50  And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
“When filled.” When at the end of the world, “the fulness of the Gentiles shall have entered.” This parable exhibits the capacity and amplitude—the Catholicity of the Church—as the net, the whole Church, takes in the entire world. The parable was introduced for the twofold purpose of removing any grounds of surprise at seeing sinners and wicked men in the Church; as even in the best constituted kingdoms we find thieves, murderers, &c.; and of cautioning us against feeling too secure, because we are members of the Church, which includes sinners as well as saints, reprobates as well as elect.

NOTE.—Of the preceding parables, some are said to be spoken before the crowd (v. 36). Hence, it is inferred by certain commentators, that the others were not; and that they were spoken privately before the disciples. By other commentators, it is supposed that all were spoken in immediate succession and at the same time. There is no satisfactory evidence for supposing, that some were spoken privately, and some publicly before the multitudes.

Mat 13:51  Have ye understood all these things? They say to him: Yes.

Our Redeemer proposes this question, in order that the answer He was sure to receive would furnish a fitting opportunity of imparting the following points of instruction.

Mat 13:52  He said unto them: Therefore every scribe instructed in the kingdom of heaven, is like to a man that is a householder, who bringeth forth out of his treasure new things and old.

“Therefore,” as you understand the things I have spoken, I wish you to bury them up in your hearts and intellects, so that as learned teachers, you may give them utterance in due time, and not keep them within yourselves. I wish, then, to inform you, that “every Scribe,” that is, teacher versed in the law, “instructed in the kingdom of heaven,” or, as the Greek has it, “INTO THE kingdom of heaven” instructed for teaching and preaching the mysteries and truths relating to the kingdom of heaven. He uses the word “scribe,” when speaking of an Evangelical teacher, in accordance with the language of the Jews. “Is like to a householder,” a provident householder, who produces from his stores all kinds of food and viands, new and old, to suit and satisfy the palate and appetite of his several guests.

The preacher of the Gospel must, then, be prepared to employ examples of all sorts, taken both from the Old Testament and the New; and bring to bear varied knowledge, derived from all legitimate sources, cultivated and perfected by daily meditation and spiritual exercises, in instructing the people. He is sure to make an ever-lasting impression, if he elucidate and confirm his teaching, and make abstract truths almost tangible by examples derived from the New Testament, and prefigured by the Old, as also by the judicious selections of examples drawn from the lives of the saints. There is hardly any point so important for preachers, as the judicious use of appropriate examples. Our Redeemer wishes to stimulate His Apostles to follow the example of preaching which He Himself had set them.

Mat 13:53  And it came to pass: when Jesus had finished these parables, he passed from thence.

“From thence,” that is, from His house at Capharnaum, where He resided and delivered the preceding explanations to His disciples.

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Father Maas’ Commentary on Matthew 13:47-53

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 26, 2013

Mat 13:47  Again the kingdom of heaven is like to a net cast into the sea, and gathering together of all kinds of fishes.
Mat 13:48  Which, when it was filled, they drew out, and sitting by the shore, they chose out the good into vessels, but the bad they cast forth.
Mat 13:49  So shall it be at the end of the world. The angels shall go out, and shall separate the wicked from among the just.
Mat 13:50  And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Again the kingdom of heaven. The net. This parable refers principally to the state of the Messianic kingdom “at the end of the world” [cf. v. 49], and shows that preaching on the part of the ministers and faith on the part of the hearers are not sufficient for salvation [cf. Chrysostom, Jansenius, Barradas]. The “net” is a drag, or draw-net, which sweeps the bottom of the water and permits nothing to escape it; it represents the teaching and believing Church [Origen, Hilary, Chrysostom], and may be conceived as being woven of the apostolic doctrine, the testimony of miracles, and the predictions of the prophets [Theophylact, Jerome]. The fishermen implied in the parable are the apostles and their successors in the ministry [cf. Mt. 4:19; Mk. 1:17; Lk. 5:10]. “The sea” is the world with its storms, its instability, and its many bitternesses [cf. Jansenius, Chrysologus, serm. 47], and in particular the waters of baptism may be regarded as the waters in which the fish are caught [St Bruno]. The net was “cast into the sea” when our Lord gave his disciples the commission to teach all nations [St Bruno]; it is a “gathering together of all kinds of fishes” because there is no distinction between Jew and Gentile, Greek and barbarian, rich and poor. The net will be “filled,” when after the fulness of the Gentiles has entered, all Israel shall be saved [cf. Rom. 11:25, 26], when the gospel shall have been preached to all nations Mt. 24:14]. The gospel does not say that all fish, or men, shall be caught, but that the net shall be full. Then follows the process of separation in the Church as well as in the fisherman’s trade: “they chose out the good into vessels, but the bad [i. e. the putrid and maimed] they cast forth”; there is this difference, however, that in the Church the separation is effected by “the angels” [verse 50], not by the fishermen, and again that the wicked are not merely rejected from the kingdom, but “cast into the furnace of fire, [where] there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” The torment and despair indicated by this expression have been pointed out above; we may add here that Jesus repeats this threat of eternal punishment with a frightful frequency [cf. Mt. 5:20 ff.; 8:12; 10:28; 12:32; 13:42, 50], so that these words must be feared rather than explained [Gregory].

Mat 13:51  Have ye understood all these things? They say to him: Yes.
Mat 13:52  He said unto them: Therefore every scribe instructed in the kingdom of heaven, is like to a man that is a householder, who bringeth forth out of his treasure new things and old.
Mat 13:53  And it came to pass: when Jesus had finished these parables, he passed from thence.

Have ye understood. Conclusion. As if to show that for the present there is no need of further parables, the evangelist records here our Lord’s question concerning the disciples’ understanding of what has been said, and the disciples’ affirmative answer which is true of their limited knowledge before the coming of the Holy Ghost. Jesus then continues, and draws a practical conclusion regarding the use the apostles must make of their knowledge. “Therefore” is not merely an asseverative particle in the Greek original [cf. Euthymius]; nor does it connect with the parable of the treasure-trove, as if the apostles had to be like the householder because the kingdom of heaven is like a treasure [cf. Augustine qu. in evang. Mt. 16; Maldonado]; but it connects with the affirmative answer of the apostles [Chrysostom, Jansenius, Sylveira, Barradas, Arnoldi, Schanz, Fillion, Knabenbauer]. “Every scribe” is not every scribe in the Jewish sense, but the scribe “instructed in the kingdom of heaven,” or better “enrolled as a disciple for the kingdom of heaven.” Concerning the Greek word here rendered “instructed,” cf. Mt. 27:57; 28:19; Acts 14:21; in the Greek text the kingdom is construed personally as if it were the teacher of the apostles, so that Euthymius explains it as “the king of heaven.” The “new things and old” represent the revelation of the New and Old Testament [cf. Origen, Hilary, Jerome, Chrysostom, Cyril, Euthymius, Paschasius, Faber Stapulensis, Dionysius, Salmeron, Cajetan, Maldonado], or the teaching of the New Testament confirmed by the authority of the Old [Theophylact], or the Old Testament in the light of the revelations of the New [Thomas Aquinas], or the truths referring to the old and the new man, i. e. to the unregenerate and the regenerate [Alb. Paschasius, Salmeron], or the truths concerning the horrors of punishment and those referring to the happiness of the kingdom [Gregory], or truths already known and truths as yet unknown, but explained by means of the known [Barradas, Sylveira], or truths in plenty and abundance of all kinds [cf. Jansenius, Maldonado, Barradas, Lapide, Calmet, Lam. Arnoldi, Fillion, Knabenbauer; Cant. 7:13]. According to this last view the expression is proverbial [cf. Maldonado]. The order “new things and old” is either owing to the proverbial character of the expression, or to the importance of the subject [Augustine civ. dei, xx. 4], or to the order to be observed in teaching, or even to that followed in learning [cf. Knabenbauer].

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Father Maas’ Commentary on Matthew 13:44-46

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 26, 2013

Mat 13:44  The kingdom of heaven is like unto a treasure hidden in a field. Which a man having found, hid it, and for joy thereof goeth, and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field.

The kingdom of heaven is like unto a treasure. The treasure, α. As the preceding parables illustrate the efficient force of the kingdom, so do the two following describe its moral power or its desirability [Cajetan]; but there is this difference between them. that in one parable the kingdom is sought, while in the other it is found as if by accident [Cajetan, Jansenius, Sylveira, Schegg, Schanz, Fillion Knabenbauer]; in the one we see its beauty, in the other its many advantages [Chrysostom, Thomas Aquinas].

The “kingdom” is like a treasure, because it incloses countless and numberless goods, as the treasure implies countless and numberless riches [cf. Ps. 19:11; 119:127; Prov. 8:11; Job 28:15–19; Wisd. 7:9]. It is like a “hidden” treasure because its value is not recognized by a soul not illumined by supernatural grace [cf. Acts 9:6; St Bruno]. The finder “hid it,” and thus in the supernatural order the finder must make a careful use of grace [Maldonado]. “For joy thereof” [Vulgate, Chrysostom, Euthymius, Fillion] rather emphasizes “his” joy according to the analogy of “his” fear [cf. Mt. 14:26; Lk. 24:41; Acts 12:14; recent commentators], than the joy over the treasure. But while the treasure and the joy it causes are expressions of the excellency of the kingdom, the sacrifices it demands are indicated by the fact that the finder “selleth all that he hath.” Though according to Rabbinic law [Surenhus. leg. mischn. iv. p. 113] the treasure belongs to the buyer of the field, Jesus does not pronounce his judgment on the manner in which the finder of the treasure acted, just as he employed the parable of the unjust steward without approving of his proceedings [cf. Lk. 16:8].

“The kingdom of heaven” in this parable and the following is Christ himself as the head of the Church [Hilary, Jerome, Paschasius, Thomas Aquinas, Salmeron], or the canon of Sacred Scriptures [Jerome, Origen, Paschasius, Alb.], or the revealed truths of faith in general [Chrysostom, Theophylact, Euthymius], or the desire after heavenly things [Gregory], or charity, or the state of the evangelical counsels [Salmeron, Sylveira Barradas, Lapide, Schegg, etc.].

Mat 13:45  Again the kingdom of heaven is like to a merchant seeking good pearls.
Mat 13:46  Who when he had found one pearl of great price, went his way, and sold all that he had, and bought it.

Again the kingdom of heaven. The pearl. The seeking after the pearl presupposes a general knowledge of its excellency together with an ignorance of the individual object; thus should all men endowed with ordinary intellectual faculties appreciate in general the worth of truth and goodness, though they may doubt, for a time, about what is really true and good. The parable insists on the necessity of being a prudent merchant, of investing all one’s goods in the purchase of the precious pearl [cf. St Bruno, Chrysostom, Theophylact, Gregory hom. xi. in evang.], which is according to the evangelist the “one pearl of great price,” and therefore worthy of notice even among the pearl-kind. The relation of this parable to the foregoing, and the various meanings of “the kingdom” have been considered in the last section.

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Father Maas’ Commentary on Matthew 13:36-43

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 26, 2013

Mat 13:36  Then having sent away the multitudes, he came into the house, and his disciples came to him, saying: Expound to us the parable of the cockle of the field.
Mat 13:37  Who made answer and said to them: He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man.
Mat 13:38  And the field is the world. And the good seed are the children of the kingdom. And the cockle are the children of the wicked one.
Mat 13:39  And the enemy that sowed them, is the devil. But the harvest is the end of the world. And the reapers are the angels.
Mat 13:40  Even as cockle therefore is gathered up, and burnt with fire: so shall it be at the end of the world.
Mat 13:41  The Son of man shall send his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all scandals, and them that work iniquity.
Mat 13:42  And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
Mat 13:43  Then shall the just shine as the sun, in the kingdom of their Father. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.

Explanation of the cockle. “The house” must be that mentioned in verse 1; “his disciples” require an explanation of “the cockle,” not because that parable is in itself more obscure than the others, but because its doctrine had surprised them, since they expected that there would be no evil in the Messianic kingdom [Schanz against Chrysostom, Euthymius]. “The Son of man” sows the good seed [Heb. 1:1, 2] not merely in his own person, but also by his ministers, and thereby spreads his saving truth [Rom. 1:16], and gives power to all of becoming adoptive sons of God [cf. Gal. 4:4, 5], or “children of the kingdom.” “The children of the wicked one,” or the seed of the serpent [Gen. 3:15], are those that have made themselves like the devil their father [Jn. 8:41, 44; 1 Jn. 3:8, 10; Acts 13:10]; not merely all heretics [Jerome, Euthymius, Theophylact], but all that have neglected or abused grace must therefore be regarded as “children of the wicked one.” “The reapers” are the angels [cf. Apoc. 14:15; Mt. 24:31; 1 Thess. 4:15]; “the end of the world” renders a Greek expression that is apocalyptic [cf. Dan. 9:27; 12:4, 13; 4 Esdr. 7:43], and occurs Mt. 13:40, 49; 24:3; 28:20; Heb. 9:26. The Jews expected “the end” together with the advent of the Messias [cf. Is. 2:2; Dan. 10:14; Heb. 9:26; 4 Esdr. 7:43], since they did not distinguish between their theocratic dispensation and the future Messianic economy. “All scandals” may be identified with “them that work iniquity,” since the conjunction “and” may have the meaning of an explanatory particle [Euthymius, Jansenius], and since all that work iniquity are practically a scandal to their neighbor. The judgment is described in Mt. 7:23; 25:41. “The furnace of fire” agrees with Lk. 16:24; Apoc. 19:20; 20:9; cf. Dan. 3:6, while the “weeping and gnashing of teeth” are a sign of the great torments suffered, and of despair [cf. Mt. 8:12]. “Then shall the just shine” is not a mere figure expressing the happiness of the just, but a statement of their real glory [cf. Dan. 12:3; Ps. 37:5-6; Obadiah 18; 104:4; Wisdom 3:7; 1 Cor. 15:41]. “As the sun” is the brightest luminary experimentally known in this world, its light and brightness represent the unspeakable glory of the just, as well as their happiness. “In the kingdom of their Father” expresses, on the one hand, that the just are the children of God, and therefore dwell in the Father’s house, and, on the other, that Christ shall have surrendered his kingdom before that period into the hands of his Father [cf. 1 Cor. 15:24], The importance of the doctrine is again emphasized by the words, “He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.”

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Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Matthew 13:36-43

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 26, 2013

Mat 13:36  Then having sent away the multitudes, he came into the house, and his disciples came to him, saying: Expound to us the parable of the cockle of the field.

He returned to His house at Capharnaum, which He left that day for the purpose of proceeding to the sea side. “The parable of the cockle in the field,” was the most abstruse, and contained the heaviest menaces. Hence, this is mentioned in particular.

Mat 13:37  Who made answer and said to them: He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man.
Mat 13:38  And the field is the world. And the good seed are the children of the kingdom. And the cockle are the children of the wicked one.
Mat 13:39  And the enemy that sowed them, is the devil. But the harvest is the end of the world. And the reapers are the angels.
Mat 13:40  Even as cockle therefore is gathered up, and burnt with fire: so shall it be at the end of the world.
Mat 13:41  The Son of man shall send his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all scandals, and them that work iniquity.
Mat 13:42  And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
Mat 13:43  Then shall the just shine as the sun, in the kingdom of their Father. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
This is the place to explain, in order, the words of St. Mark (4:26), where the third parable uttered by our Redeemer, is recorded.

“So is the kingdom of heaven,” that is, something happens in regard to “the kingdom of heaven;” or, to the preaching of the Gospel, “as if a man should cast seed into the earth” (Mark 4:26), “and should sleep and rise, night and day,” devoting himself to other matters, whether appertaining to rest or labour, he would sleep at night, and rise to his usual avocations in the day; and the seed would grow up, whilst the sower had no thought or concern about its growth.

“Sleep and rise,” are understood by some, of the “seed,” which would “sleep,” by being committed to the earth, and afterwards “rise,” that is, grow up day and night, whilst the sower never thinks of it. However, the words, more probably, refer to the husbandman, as explained above, the word, “sleep,” having reference to “night,” and “rise” to the “day.” “For the earth itself” (Mark 4:28), without any further culture from the husbandman, but not exclusive of other concurring causes, e.g., sun, rain, and God Himself, “bringeth forth fruit,” &c.

“And when the fruit is brought forth” (Mark 4:29). The Greek for, “is brought forth” (παραδοῖ), means, “brings forth,” in which case, “fruit” may be understood of the grain, itself the fruit of a former sowing; or, if the word, “fruit,” be understood of the present grain springing forth from the seed sown, then, “brings forth,” will have the meaning given in our version, “is brought forth;” or, “brings forth,” manifests and shows itself.

Our Blessed Redeemer does not Himself explain this and the following parables, as He had been graciously pleased to do in regard to the two preceding ones. However, the parable manifestly points out to us, that in the work of preaching the Gospel, we should not be cast down by any apparent want of success in our labours. The labour is ours, but the increase must come from God; and, like the natural fruits of the earth, it is only in time we can expect the spiritual fruit, for which, like the husbandman, we must patiently wait, until God shall be pleased to bestow the fertile influences of “the early and the latter rain” (James 5:7). As the seed committed to the earth imperceptibly springs up, even when the husbandman is not thinking of it; so, does the Word of God, committed to a heart disposed for its reception, imperceptibly shoot forth, whilst the preacher has no thought whatever regarding it. Again, as the seed successively produces the ear, the stalk, &c.; so does the Word of God gradually bring about the full fruit of salvation, in the hearer disposed to profit by it. Holy desires, disrelish for the vanities of the world, feelings of compunction, faith in God, and hope in His promises, may be called the stalk. Good works, victory of the soul over her passions, and over the temptations of the devil, the ear; perseverance in grace and charity, the full corn in ear; and, finally, a happy death, and the enjoyment of bliss, are the putting in of the sickle, and the final gathering in of the harvest (Mauduit and Rutter).

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Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Matthew 13:36-43

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 26, 2013

Ver 36. Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, “Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field.”37. He answered and said unto them, “He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man;38. The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one;39. The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels.40. As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world.41. The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity;42. And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.43. Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.”

Chrys.: The Lord had spoken to the multitude in parables, that He might induce them to ask Him of their meaning; yet, though He had spoken so many things in parables, no man had yet asked Him aught, and therefore He sends them away; “Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house.” None of the Scribes followed Him here, from is which it is clear that they followed Him for no other purpose than that they might catch Him in His discourse.

Jerome: The Lord sends away the multitude, and enters the house that His disciples might come to Him and ask Him privately of those things which the people neither deserved to hear, nor were able.

Raban.: Figuratively; Having sent away the multitude of unquiet Jews, He enters the Church of the Gentiles, and there expounds to believers heavenly sacraments, whence it follows, “And his disciples came to him, saying, Explain to us the parable of the tares of the field.”

Chrys.: Before, though desirous to learn, they had feared to ask; but now they ask freely and confidently because they had heard, “To you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of heaven;” and therefore they ask when alone, not envying the multitude to whom it was not so given. They pass over the parables of the leaven and the mustard-seed as plain; and ask concerning the parable of the tares, which has some agreement with the foregoing parable concerning the seed, and shews somewhat more than that.

And accordingly the Lord expounds it to them, as it follows, “He answered and said unto them, He that sows the good seed is the Son of man.”

Remig.: The Lord styles Himself the Son of Man, that in that title He might set an example of humility; or perhaps because it was to come to pass that certain heretics would deny Him to be really man; or that through belief in His Humanity we might ascend to knowledge of His Divinity.

Chrys.: “The field is the world.” Seeing it is He that sows His own field, it is plain that this present world is His. It follows, “The good seed are the children of the kingdom.”

Remig.: That is, the saints, and elect men, who are counted as sons.

Aug., Cont. Faust., xviii, 7: The tares the Lord expounds to mean, not as Manichaeus interprets, certain spurious parts inserted among the true Scriptures, but all the children of the Evil one, that is, the imitators of the fraud of the Devil.

As it follows, “The tares are the children of the evil one,” by whom He would have us understand all the wicked and impious.

Aug., Quaest. Ev., i, 10: For all weeds among corn are called tares.

Aug.: It follows, “The enemy who sowed this is the Devil.”

Chrys.: For this is part of the wiles of the Devil, to be ever mixing up truth with error.  “The harvest is the end of the world.”

In another place He says, speaking of the Samaritans, “Lift up your eyes, and consider the fields that they are already white for the harvest;” [Joh_4:35] and again, “The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few,” [Luk_10:2] in which words He speaks of the harvest as being already present.

How then does He here speak of it as something yet to come? Because He has used the figure of the harvest in two significations;, as He says there that it is one that soweth, and another that reapeth; but here it is the same who both sows and reaps; indeed there He brings forward the Prophets, not to distinguish them from Himself, but from the Apostles, for Christ Himself by His Prophets sowed among the Jews and Samaritans.

The figure of harvest is thus applied to two different things. Speaking of first conviction and turning to the faith, He calls that the harvest, as that in which the whole is accomplished; but when He enquires into the fruits ensuing upon the hearing the word of God, then He calls the end of the world the harvest, as here.

Remig.: By the harvest is denoted the day of judgment, in which the good are to be separated from the evil; which will be done by the ministry of Angels, as it is said below, that the Son of Man shall come to judgment with His Angels.

“As then the tares are gathered and burned in the fire, so shall it be in the end of this world. The Son of man shall send forth his Angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all offences, and them which do iniquity.”

Aug., City of God, book xx, ch. 9: Out of that kingdom in which are no offences? The kingdom then is His kingdom which is here, namely, the Church.

Aug., Quaest. Ev., i, 10: That the tares are first separated, signifies that by tribulation the wicked shall be separated from the righteous; and this is understood to be performed by good Angels, because the good can discharge duties of punishment with a good spirit, as a judge, or as the Law, but the wicked cannot fulfil offices of mercy.

Chrys.: Or we may understand it of the kingdom of the heavenly Church; and then there will be held out here a two-fold punishment; first that they fall from glory as that is said, “And they shall gather out of his kingdom all offences,” to the end, that no offences should be seen in His kingdom; and then that they are burned.  “And they shall cast them into a furnace of fire.”

Jerome: The offences are to be referred to the tares.

Gloss., non occ.: “The offences”, and, “them that do iniquity,” are to be distinguished as heretics and schismatics; the “offences” referring to heretics; while by “them that do iniquity” are to be understood schismatics.

Otherwise; By “offences” may be understood those that give their neighbour an occasion of falling, by “those that do iniquity” all other sinners.Raban.: Observe, He says, “Those that do iniquity,” not, those who have done; because not they who have turned to penitence, but they only that abide in their sins are to be delivered to eternal torments.

Chrys.: Behold the unspeakable love of God towards men! He is ready to shew mercy, slow to punish; when He sows, He sows Himself; when He punishes, He punishes by others, sending His Angels to that.It follows, “There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”

Remig.: In these words is shewn the reality of the resurrection of the body; and further, the twofold pains of hell, extreme heat, and extreme cold. And as the offences are referred to the tares, so the righteous are reckoned among the children of the kingdom; concerning whom it follows, “Then the righteous shall shine as the sun in the kingdom of their Father.” For in the present world the light of the saints shines before men, but after the consummation of all things, the righteous themselves shall shine as the sun in the kingdom of their Father.

Chrys.: Not that they shall not shine with higher brightness, but because we know no degree of brightness that surpasses that of the sun, therefore He uses an example adapted to our understanding.

Remig.: That He says, “Then shall they shine,” implies that they now shine for an example to others, but they shall then shine as the sun to the praise of God. “He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.”

Raban.: That is, Let him understand who has understanding, because all these things are to be understood mystically, and not literally.

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