The Divine Lamp

The unfolding of thy words gives light; it imparts understanding to the simple…Make thy face shine upon thy servant, and teach me thy statutes

Archive for September, 2015

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Luke 16:9-15

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 27, 2015

Luk 16:9  And I say to you: Make unto you friends of the mammon of iniquity: that when you shall fail, they may receive you into everlasting dwellings.

9. “And I say unto you.” This is the conclusion drawn from the above parable by our Lord for the guidance of His followers at all times. “I” and “you,” are very emphatic. The steward said to himself, I know what I shall do; I shall make friends for myself of my master’s debtors. I say also to you, imitating the steward’s cunning and prudence, do you also make friends for yourselves out of the unjust, unrighteous mammon, which your Sovereign Master has deposited in your hands, to be dispensed by you, as faithful stewards, according to His will, by laying up your riches in the bosom of the poor, “that when you shall fail,” and shall be deprived of the stewardship at the hour of death, when you shall be called upon to render an account of your dispensation, “they” like the master’s debtors, whom the steward desired to conciliate in order to be admitted into their houses, “may receive you into” their houses, in the kingdom which is properly theirs (Matthew 5:3; Luke 6:20), houses, or “tabernacles,” which are to endure for ever.

“Mammon of iniquity,” a common Hebraism for unrighteous, iniquitous mammon. “Mammon ” is a Syriac word, signifying riches (Matthew 6:24). Riches are termed iniquitous or unjust for several reasons, either, because they are, generally speaking, the fruit of injustice on the part of our forefathers, by rapine, plunder, &c, or, on our own part. Hence, the common phrase, “dives aut injustus aut hæres injusti,” quoted by St. Jerome (Ep. 1, ad Hebridiam, Qusest. 1), and as the heir of injustice knows not precisely to whom he should make restitution, he should give it to the poor; or, because they occasion injustice in their possessors, unless greatly on their guard, such as pride, avarice, luxury. In this way St. Paul terms concupiscence “sin” being the cause and effect of sin, “quod habitat in me peccatum” (Rom. 7:17); or, because, it is the unrighteous or unjust alone, that regard riches as their sovereign good, place their whole trust in them, and value them unduly, although false, deceitful, and transitory, never satisfying the human heart; the just, on the other hand, in possessing riches, regard them as transitory, and value heavenly riches alone; or, because, men often regard the riches they possess as absolutely their own, whereas, in reality they are God’s, to whom belongs the earth and its fulness. Men, in reference to God, hold them by the mere title of dispensation or stewardship. This latter meaning well suits the parable, in which God is signified by the “rich man.” We are only stewards, who unjustly employ for our own selfish ends what belongs to Him. Riches are not unjust or unrighteous of themselves, but only in their abuse.

“When you fail.” When at death, you are called upon to render an account of your stewardship, now to be taken away from you.

“They may receive you,” or, rather, God shall admit you, owing, in some cases, to their intercession, into His heavenly kingdom, which is peculiarly the inheritance of the poor; but He shall do so, especially in consideration of the pure motive of charity, which dictates the giving of alms to the poor, which are, therefore, given to Himself, whom they represent. This latter reason will hold, whether there be question of the faithful and just poor, themselves occupants of heaven, or of the unjust poor excluded from it, when we relieve them for God’s sake, whom in their poverty they represent.

“Into everlasting dwellings,” which peculiarly belong to the poor, as such. No doubt, many among the poor shall be excluded, who die impenitent, and many among the rich admitted, who shall merit by their charity the graces necessary to fulfil the other precepts of God. For, mere alms-giving will not save; but, alms-giving will move God to grant forgiveness of sin and the graces necessary for salvation. The rich have great difficulties in gaining heaven ; and from this passage, it is clear, that unless they discharge the duty of alms- giving they shall be excluded from God’s everlasting kingdom. “Everlasting” solid, enduring mansions, in opposition to these dwellings “made with hands ” in this world, whose duration is but temporary.

From this entire passage is clearly seen the duty of relieving the poor by almsgiving under pain of exclusion from the kingdom of heaven. We are mere stewards of the goods we possess in this world. If we appropriate them to our own use, instead of dispensing them according to the will and for the interests of our Master, we act the part of unjust, unfaithful stewards; and we shall be excluded from God’s everlasting mansions, when the accounting day arrives.

The precept of alms-giving may be also clearly seen from the providence of God in the present order of things. While arranging the unequal distribution of earthly goods, He appoints the rich as His own stewards and representatives in regard to His poor. In order to bind together more firmly the several members of the great human family, He has ordered that they should mutually depend on each other, as He had done in regard to the several members of the human body; and He has made the reciprocal exhibition of love, the great bond of indissoluble union. When the rich, then, neglect to succour their indigent brethren, and follow not the example of Him whose place they hold, Who “opens His hand and fills every animal with benediction;” Who “makes His sunfrom heaven rise on the good and bad, and rains upon thejust and the unjust,” they become instrumental in subverting the order of Providence, established by God. Through them His name is blasphemed; and an order of things established directly at variance with His divine ordinances; and their neglect made chargeable, with wicked men, on His infinite goodness and wisdom. Hence, our Lord regards the salvation of a rich man as so very difficult; because, it is so hard to find a rich man who complies, to the requisite extent, with the precept of relieving the poor.

The same precept is clearly referred to (1 John 3:17), where He condemns those who, having a knowledge of their neighbour’s wants, and the means of relieving him, still neglect doing so. Also, James 1:13-27; 2:15; Matthew 25:34-46. The same may be also clearly seen from the fate of the hard-hearted rich man, whose history and miserable end are given towards the close of this chapter, vv. 19-31.

In what follows in verses 10-12 our Redeemer would seem to have for object in these three verses, to inculcate charity towards the poor, and the faithful discharge, on the part of the rich, of their office as stewards, in the dispensation of the goods of this world, which, properly speaking, are God’s. This He inculcates, on the ground, that infidelity in the discharge of their office, of properly dispensing temporal goods, would entail the withholding or withdrawal from them, of spiritual goods, and their final exclusion from the eternal bliss, for obtaining which spiritual gifts and graces are indispensable. He also inculcates due correspondence with spiritual graces, and the proper use of them.

Luk 16:10  He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in that which is greater: and he that is unjust in that which is little is unjust also in that which is greater.

“He that is faithful in that which is least,” &c. This is an adagial expression, founded on the common opinion of mankind and experience, conveying what generally happens. It is understood of fidelity or want of fidelity in small things, arising from an innate principle of honesty or dishonesty. Men who find their servants honest in small things regard them as deserving of credit in regard to great things. Hence, we find the reward given in the Gospel, “quia super pauca fuisti fidelis, super multa te constituam,” &c. “The least” and “little,” are generally understood of temporal matters, which are “little” compared with spiritual treasures; and “greater” of the more precious treasures of the spiritual life. The man, who is not faithful in the administration of temporal goods, according to the will of God, shows that he does not deserve to be entrusted with the spiritual treasures of grace, which he would be sure to employ unprofitably. “Si quis domui suæ præsse nescit, quomodo Ecclesiæ Dei diligentiam habebit?” (1 Timothy 3:5.)

Luk 16:11  If then you have not been faithful in the unjust mammon, who will trust you with that which is the true?

This is an inference from the foregoing adage “If you have not been faithful,” in the dispensation of “unjust mammon,” the goods of this world, which are fugitive, uncertain, deceitful and never satisfy the cravings of the human heart, “who will trust you with that which is true?” He refers to the spiritual treasures of grace, which are in reality “true” riches, alone capable of satisfying the heart, alone conducting to the true and permanent end for which we were created. This may be understood of all men, to whom God commits His treasures of grace, to be employed by them for their own sanctification and final salvation. Our Lord here threatens the rich and avaricious, that by the misuse of temporal wealth, they will deserve to be refused spiritual graces, or, to have the graces which they possess, withdrawn from them. In verse 9, He proposes the reward of alms-deeds; in these verses, the punishment of neglecting it.

Luk 16:12  And if you have not been faithful in that which is another’s, who will give you that which is your own?

12. “Another’s,” temporal wealth, which belongs to God—like that which the steward squandered—given as His own to us for administration. We have merely the use of it from Him. Riches were never ours ; we brought none of them into this world, nor shall we bring any out of it. They are external to us, and by no means belong to us, foreign to the rational and spiritual nature of man. “Your own,” the spiritual treasures of grace, which may be called ” our own,” because they remain with us; they adhere to us, and conduct us to our last end, for which we were destined and created, and which we cannot lose. “Who will give?” &c. No one; God will withhold or take away spiritual goods in punishment of our abuse or maladministration of the temporal goods confided to our stewardship (Psalm 48:17, 18; Job 27:19).

Luk 16:13  No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one and love the other: or he will hold to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon.

Our Lord in this verse employs an adage founded on experience, regarding the impossibility of serving two masters of opposite characters, demanding opposite and contrary things, in order to dissuade His followers, and the Pharisees, also, whom He specially censures, from the pursuit of avarice. (See Matthew 6:24, Commentary on.) The adage is suggested by the idea, that those who neglect alms-deeds, show an inordinate attachment to riches, which they serve as an idol. Now, such service is incompatible with the service of God. We can serve only one or the other.

Luk 16:14 Now the Pharisees, who were covetous, heard all these things: and they derided him. ‎

Now the Pharisees, who were covetous”—fond of money—“heard all these things.” The Greek has, “the Pharisees also,” as well as the disciples, whom He addressed, “heard all these things.”

And they derided Him.” The Greek word for “derided,” εξεμυκτηριζον, conveys the external expression of their contempt—literally, they turned up their noses at Him—a common metaphor, denoting derision—“naso suspendere adunco” (Horace). They sneered derisively at our Lord—Himself poor and bereft of all earthly riches—for inculcating on the rich the duty of distributing their wealth among the poor. Not considering the selfish accumulation of wealth, opposed to the teaching of Moses, and to the high standard of legal perfection they proposed to follow, they sneered at the doctrine, that they were mere stewards of their earthly wealth; that riches were unjust “mammon;” that the amassing of wealth was incompatible with the service of God, especially as the law of Moses promised temporal blessings to its faithful observers. Hence, these men sneered at our Lord’s teaching, just as, now-a-days, we find the haughty, the libidinous, &c., despise the Evangelical teaching regarding humility, charity, &c., so opposed to their loose, dissolute morals. “The sensual man perceiveth not those things that are of the Spirit of God” (1 Cor. 2:14).

Luk 16:15 And he said to them: you are they who justify yourselves before men, but God knoweth your hearts. For that which is high to men is an abomination before God.

Having observed their sneers, our Lord, in order to cover them with confusion, reproaches them publicly, with vainly affecting to be just, though not so in reality, and forces them to enter into themselves, that they might discover what God sees in their interior, viz., hypocrisy, secret injustice, avarice, and envy. He conveys, that while they affected to be just, they were abominable in the sight of God.

You are they who justify yourselves before men”—that is, affect legal justice, and wish to be regarded as just before men, putting on the appearance of sanctity and disinterestedness.

But God knoweth your hearts.” By this, our Lord conveys, that He clearly saw into their interior, and knew the vices with which they were tainted; but, as these vices were too great to be exposed, He insinuates so much by saying that God, “the searcher of hearts,” saw how their hearts were tainted with avarice and other corrupt passions. “For,” is a proof of the assertion tacitly conveyed in the words, “God knoweth your hearts,” viz., that their secret vices, with which they were stained, were well known to God, and their acts prized at their proper value. “What is high to men”—what is held in esteem by men, riches, station, and apparent sanctity, which men can only judge of from what they see—“is an abomination before God,” “abominatio Domini est omnis arrogans,” &c. (Proverbs 16) Sometimes God approves of what men approve; but, oftentimes what men approve of is detested by God, if avarice, pride, hypocrisy, reign in the heart, and sincerity be wanting. The sentence here uttered by our Lord has reference to the pride and hypocrisy of the Pharisees, whose external sanctity men prized and valued, but, God hated and detested, as the interior dispositions were wanting. All their external show was the sheerest hypocrisy, which is an abomination before God.

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Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 145

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 27, 2015

THE GLORY OF YAHWEH’S KINGDOM

THIS psalm, which is called a “Praise-song” of David, is a simple alphabetic acrostic—the first line of each verse commencing with a letter of the alphabet next in order to that with which the preceding verse began. The nun-line is wanting in the Massoretic text, but it can be supplied from the Greek, and is represented in the Vulgate.

In the first eight verses the psalmist celebrates the goodness and greatness of God as manifested throughout creation. In verses 9-12 the purpose of this manifestation is explained—that the Kingdom of Yahweh may be glorified. This Kingdom is to last for ever; hence, in verses 13-21, the psalmist voices his confident expectation that the Lord will protect with special kindness those of His loyal worshippers
who are, for the moment, in suffering or distress. If God’s faithful worshippers were to be for ever forgotten and abandoned, how could
God’s Kingdom be perpetual?

Verse 13 of this psalm is cited in Aramaic translation in Dan. 3:100; 4:31, so that the psalm must be regarded as older, at least, than the Book of Daniel. The attribution of the psalm to David may be due, perhaps, to the extensive use of other psalms which it shows.

Posted in Bible, Catholic, Notes on the Lectionary, NOTES ON THE PSALMS, Scripture | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 16:3-9, 16, 22-27

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 27, 2015

COMMENDATION OF PHOEBE, AND PARTICULAR GREETINGS TO MANY FRIENDS IN ROME
A Summary of Romans 16:1-16

That Phoebe, a deaconess of the community at Cenchrae, was the bearer of this letter to the Eternal City has been commonly believed by both ancient and modern interpreters, and is attested to by the subscriptions of many codices, Greek, Latin, Syriac and Coptic. Entrusting her with the care of this momentous Epistle, St. Paul considers Phoebe worthy of commendation to the Roman faithful for two reasons: first, because she is their, as well as his “sister,” that is, a Christian; and secondly, because of her kindly offices and helpfulness to many, including himself. After this follow special greetings to a number of converts and close friends of the Apostle.

Rom 16:3. Salute Prisca and Aquila, my helpers in Christ Jesus,
Rom 16:4. (Who have for my life laid down their own necks: to whom not I
only give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles,)
Rom 16:5. And the church which is in their house. Salute Epenetus, my beloved:
who is the firstfruits of Asia in Christ.

Prisca and Aquila. Prisca, the wife of Aquila, was most likely of Jewish origin ; she is the same person as Priscilla of Acts 18:2, 18. Aquila was by birth a Jew of Pontus; his Latin cognomen probably came from his own, or his ancestors’ association with a Roman family. Both Aquila and Prisca were perhaps converted to the faith in Rome by St. Peter. St. Paul first met them in Corinth on his first visit there. They had lately come from Rome, having been driven from the Eternal City with other Jews and Christians by the edict of Claudius. Accompanying the Apostle to Ephesus they remained in that city and established a church in their house, while St. Paul went on his way to Jerusalem. They were there still, or again, when the first letter to the Corinthians was written (1 Cor. 16:19); later, when this present letter was written, as we see, they were in Rome; and some years later still they were again at Ephesus (2 Tim. 4:19).

The authenticity of this present passage has been questioned on account of the frequent change of abode on the part of Aquila and Prisca. But the following considerations will clear away the difficulty: (a) It was common among the Jews of this time often to change their home; (b) it is clear from this passage, from 1 Cor. 16:19, and from Acts 28:26, that Aquila and Prisca were engaged in propagating the Gospel; (c) it was only natural that they should wish to return to Rome to prepare for the Apostle’s advent there (Acts 19:21), and after his release from prison they would wish again to visit the faithful of Asia. They probably died at Ephesus some time after the writing of the Second Epistle to Timothy.

Since Aquila and Prisca, when at Ephesus the first time, knew of the Apostle’s intended Roman visit (Acts 19:21), and in all probability returned there to arrange for his coming, it is most reasonable to suppose that they communicated with him from Rome, giving him such information about friends and conditions there as would explain the list of salutations that follows here, and which also perhaps influenced in some measure the whole character of the present Epistle.

Who have for my life, etc., i.e., to save my life, etc. What were the sufferings here alluded to we do not know. That Aquila and Prisca, however, exposed their own lives to danger in order to save the Apostle is clear from this verse. The reference is doubtless to some such events as are spoken of in Acts 18:12 ff.; 19:23 ff.; 1 Cor. 15:23; 2 Cor. 11:26.

But also all the churches of the Gentiles, etc., whose members had been so much assisted by Aquila and Prisca at Corinth, at Ephesus, and at Rome.

The church which is in their house. The Apostle sends his salutations to those Christians who were accustomed to assemble in the house of Aquila and Prisca in Rome. This phrase seems to indicate that St. Paul had heard from Aquila and Prisca after their return to Rome. The faithful, in the early days of the Church, not having special buildings for the celebration of the divine mysteries, were accustomed to assemble in private houses, and there assist at the Holy Sacrifice, receive Holy Communion, listen to sermons and instructions, etc. (Acts 12:12; 1 Cor. 16:19; Col. 4:15; Philem. 2). Doubtless there were many such houses of worship in Rome and in other large cities.

There should be no parentheses enclosing verse 4.

Epenetus, who was a Gentile Christian, was probably converted at Ephesus by Aquila and Prisca and went with them to Rome.

The firstfruits of Asia, i.e., the first person, or among the first persons converted in the Roman Province of Asia, which had Ephesus for its capital, just as Stephanas, baptized by St. Paul himself, was among the firstfruits of Achaia (1 Cor. 16:15).

Rom 16:6. Salute Mary, who hath laboured much among you.

Mary was doubtless a Christian of Jewish origin, if the reading μαριαμ (Mariam = Miriam) is correct; but if we read with Soden μαριαν (Marian), the name may be either Jewish or Roman.

Among you. This phrase is read εις ημας εν υμας, and εις υμας in various MSS.; but the last reading, found in the best MSS.,
is to be preferred. What were the great services rendered to
the Church of Rome by this pious lady we do not know. Basically, εις ημας εν υμας would indicate that Mary has labored for the sake of St Paul and his missionaries; εις υμας indicates that she has labored for the sake of the the epistle’s recipients.

The in vobis of the Vulgate should be in vos.

Rom 16:7. Salute Andronicus and Junias, my kinsmen and fellow prisoners: who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.

Andronicus, a Greek name often used by Jews.

Junias. The Greek ιουνιαν is probably the accusative of ιουνια, and thus, being feminine, would signify the wife or sister of Andronicus. It is also possible, however, that we have here an abbreviation of the masculine ιουνιανος, Junianus in Latin, which would mean a man.

My kinsmen, i.e., descendants from St. Paul’s own tribe of Benjamin. It is unlikely that “kinsmen” here means merely Jews, because this appellation is not applied to Aquila and Prisca, who were also Jews. We do not know when Andronicus and Junias were fellow prisoners with St. Paul.

Of note among the apostles, i.e., distinguished, esteemed among the Apostles, or by the Apostles (Cornely, Zahn), as having been converted to the faith before St. Paul, and consecrated to the work of the Apostles. They were not, however, Apostles in the strict sense of the term.

The Vulgate nobiles in apostolis=nobiles inter praedicatores, or
rather, apostolos (St. Thomas, Lagr.).

Rom 16:8. Salute Ampliatus, most beloved to me in the Lord.

Ampliatus is a Latin name found in inscriptions of the imperial household. In a chamber in the cemetery of Domitilla, one of the first of the Christian catacombs in Rome, there are two inscriptions, one of which contains in bold letters Ampliati, the other Aurel. Ampliatus; the first goes back to the end of the first or the beginning of the second century, and the other belongs to the end of the second century. It seems very probable that this is the Ampliatus of whom St. Paul here speaks. That he should have been buried in a richly painted tomb in Domitilla seems to show that he was very prominent among the early Roman Christians and dear to St. Paul by reason of his many virtues and great services.

The Vulgate dilectissimum should be dilectum. The word most before beloved in English should be omitted.

Rom 16:9. Salute Urbanus, our helper in Christ Jesus, and Stachys, my beloved.

Urbanus. A Roman name, common among slaves and frequently found in Latin inscriptions. St. Paul speaks of him as our helper, showing that he was a helper of the Roman Christians, rather than a personal friend of his own.

Stachys, a Greek name, but found in inscriptions of the imperial household. According to tradition St. Andrew made Stachys first Bishop of Byzantium.

Jesus (Vulg., Jesu) is not in the Greek.

Rom 16:16. Salute one another with an holy kiss. All the churches of Christ salute you.

Having enumerated the various persons to whom he wished his personal greetings to be conveyed, St. Paul bids all the Christians at Rome to salute one another in his name with a holy kiss. The Christians, after the manner of the Jews before them (Matt. 26:48; Luke v7:45; 22:48), were accustomed to greet one another with a kiss as a sign of charity; this custom became with the Christians a liturgical ceremony expressive of the unity and charity that prevailed among them, and was practiced especially at their religious reunions after the celebration of the divine mysteries (St. Justin, Apol. i. 65; Tertull., De Orat. 18; Const. Apost. ii. 57; etc.).

All the churches of Christ, etc. St. Paul is speaking in the name of all the Churches, perhaps because there were present with him as he wrote representatives of many, if not all, of the other Christian communities, and also because the Church of Rome was an object of special veneration to all the rest.

GREETINGS FROM ST. PAUL’S COMPANIONS
A Summary of Romans 16:21-24

This section is a postscript to the letter. Most probably St. Paul had intended to add the doxology immediately after his prayer for grace of verse 20, and thus terminate the Epistle. But remembering that he had not included the greetings of his companions, as was often his custom (1 Cor. 16:19 ff.; Philip, 4:21; Col. 4:10 ff.; 2 Tim. 4:21; Tit. 3:15; Philem. 23), he preferred to insert them between his prayer and the doxology rather than omit them altogether (Cornely). Perhaps this addition of greetings caused the Apostle to repeat in verse 24 the prayer of verse 20, as some critics hold, so that the doxology might immediately follow the prayer, as he had first intended.

Rom 16:22. I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.

I Tertius. St. Paul made use of a certain Tertius as secretary in writing the present Epistle. It was usual with the Apostle to dictate his letters (2 Thess. 3:17; Gal. 6:11; 1 Cor. 16:21; Col. 4:18; Philem. 19), but it was not customary for the secretary to include his personal greetings as here. Perhaps Tertius was known to the Romans, and so was told by St. Paul to add his own salutation.

Rom 16:23. Caius, my host, and the whole church, saluteth you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, saluteth you, and Quartus, a brother.

Caius, also written Gains. This is very likely the person spoken of in 1 Cor. 1:14, a wealthy Corinthian, baptized by St. Paul during the latter’s first visit to Corinth. St. Paul doubtless enjoyed the hospitality of Caius throughout his stay at Corinth.

And the whole church. Better, “And the host of the whole church,” i.e., all the faithful of Corinth that were accustomed to assemble in the house of Caius for divine service (Origen, Lipsius, Julicher, etc.) ; or all the faithful that were freely permitted to come to Caius’ house while St. Paul was there (Kuhl); or all those Christians who were wont to seek the hospitality of Caius when passing through Corinth (St. Chrys., Cornely, Lagr., etc.).

Erastus does not seem to be the person by the same name of Acts 19:22, of whom St. Paul probably spoke in 2 Tim. 4:20.

The treasurer, i.e., the officer in charge of finances in the city of Corinth.

Quartus, as his name would indicate, was perhaps a Roman Christian, and therefore known to the Romans.

A brother, i.e., a Christian.

The Vulgate universa ecclesia ought to be in the genitive, universae
ecclesiae, as in the Greek.

Rom 16:24. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

This verse is usually regarded as a mere repetition, due to copyists, of verse 20b. It is wanting in the most ancient MSS. and in many versions.

THE FINAL DOXOLOGY
A Summary of Romans 16:25-27

From verse 22 we gather that the whole Epistle, up to the present section, was dictated by St. Paul to Tertius, his secretary. At this point the Apostle very probably took the pen in his own hand and wrote the doxology by way of solemn conclusion and signature.

The doxology sums up briefly, yet completely, the whole doctrine of the Epistle, reproducing its most significant language, and extolling the omnipotence of God which alone is able to confirm the neophytes in the faith they have received.

Rom 16:25. Now to him that is able to establish you, according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret from eternity,

To him that is able, etc., supposes, as its complement, “glory,” as in verse 27, ω η δοξα. A similar formula of praise the Apostle often made use of in other Epistles (Gal. 1:1; Eph. 3:21; Philip, 4:20; 1 Tim. 1:17; Heb. 13:20).

To establish, etc. When he would be in Rome the Apostle hoped to confirm the Romans in the faith they had received (Rom 1:11), and meanwhile he prays that the grace of God, without which nothing can be accomplished, will stabilize and hold them fast in their faith.

According to my gospel, i.e., according to the Gospel which St. Paul preached everywhere (cf. Rom 2:16; 11:28; 2 Tim. 2:8), and which was the doctrine of Jesus Christ as also preached by the other Apostles. Although St. Paul in his preaching laid stress on the universality of salvation for all, Jews and Gentiles, and the gratuitousness of this salvation through faith alone, independently of antecedent personal merits or the works of the Law; and while the scope of his Gospel thus differed naturally to some extent from that of the other Apostles, since he was in particular the Apostle of the Gentiles, he was, nevertheless, like the others, always teaching the one Gospel of Christ, else how could he ask God to confirm the Romans, to whom he had never preached, in his Gospel, if it were something distinct from and contrary to the teaching of those others?

The preaching of Jesus Christ, i.e., the doctrine which Christ
had announced to the world and had commanded the Apostle to
preach; or, according to others, the doctrine which has for its
object Jesus Christ, dead and raised again to life (Comely, Kuhl,
etc.).

According to the revelation. This phrase is to be coordinated
with the previous one, “according to my gospel,” etc. ; and the
meaning is that this Gospel, this preaching, is the revelation of
a mystery, namely, the universality of salvation for all men, Jews
and Gentiles, through faith in Jesus Christ. This great mystery
God had decreed from all eternity, but had kept secret, until it was
made manifest in the appearance of Christ, in His life and
Resurrection and the preaching of the Apostles (Lagr.).

Rom 16:26. (Which now is made manifest by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the precept of the eternal God. for the obedience of faith), known among all nations;

Which now, i.e., by the corporal presence of Christ in this world, is made manifest, better, “hath been made manifest,” God’s eternal secret in the Person and life of Christ, His Only-begotten Son.

By the scriptures, etc., i.e., by the ancient prophetic writings, through which Christ and the Gospel were foreshadowed and announced, and of which the Apostles made use in their preaching and writing in confirmation of their teaching (Rom 1:2 3:21;
9:25, 26; 10:13, 15, 18, 20; 15:9-12; Eph. 3:21; Acts 2:17-21,
25-28; 13:47; 15:16, etc.).

For the obedience, etc., i.e., that the Gospel might be accepted, that men might believe in Jesus Christ—this was the aim and object of the revelation of the great mystery spoken of in the preceding verse, which was for all nations, Gentiles as well as Jews.

Rom 16:27. To God the only wise, through Jesus Christ, to whom be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.

By a prayer of praise to the wisdom of God the Apostle terminates his sublime Epistle to the Romans.

The only wise, i.e., whose infinite wisdom alone was able to guard His eternal secret and prepare His revelation for the redemption of man through Jesus Christ, His Only-begotten Son.

Honour (Vulg., honor) is not represented in the Greek. The
construction of the verse is made irregular by the relative ω (ho = “to whom”) which, however, seems to be undoubtedly authentic, as being found in the best MSS., and, which, by referring back to God rather than to Jesus Christ, serves somewhat to complete the sentence begun in verse 25.

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Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 16:3-9, 16, 22-27

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 27, 2015

SUMMARY ANALYSIS OF ROMANS 16

In this chapter, the Apostle commends to the Romans, Phœbe, the Deaconess of the Church of Cenchreæ, the bearer of this Epistle, and a benefactress to himself and several others (verses 1, 2).

He salutes many of the saints of Rome, and mentions their names with much praise. He exhorts them to note the authors of scandal and dissension, and to shun them; for, such persons are solely actuated by motives of selfishness, only serving themselves and not Jesus Christ. By shunning these, they will preserve their faith without any admixture of error. He prays for them and promises them the divine assistance against such impostors (verse 20). He mentions the names of those who send their salutations to the Romans (21, 22, 23), and finally, after blessing them, he closes the Epistle with a doxology, in which he extols the attributes of God.

Romans 16:3 Salute Prisca and Aquila, my helpers, in Christ Jesus

Salute Prisca, and her husband Aquila, my coadjutors in promulgating the gospel of Christ.

These were of Jewish extraction, well instructed in the faith, and tent makers by trade. They had returned to Rome after the death of the Emperor Claudius, by whose edict all Jews were banished from Rome. “My helpers,” &c. They assisted and co-operated with the Apostle in the work of the gospel.

Romans 16:4 (Who have for my life laid down their own necks: to whom not I only give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles),  

They also were sharers in my dangers; for, they exposed and perilled their lives in defence of mine; to them, therefore, not only I, but all the churches of the Gentiles, whose Apostle they have saved, and in whose conversion they have co-operated, return thanks.

“Who had exposed their necks for my life.” This must have happened either in the tumult raised at Corinth (Acts, 18:12), or in the one at Ephesus (Acts, 19:24).

Romans 16:5 And the church which is in their house. Salute Epenetus, my beloved: who is the firstfruits of Asia in Christ.

Salute also their entire Christian family. Salute also Epenetus, who was the first to embrace the faith when I preached in Asia, and is, therefore, my firstborn in Christ from that country. 

“The church which is in their house,” i.e., their entire Christian family, which was as orderly and as well regulated as a church; it was also distinguished for piety. It may be that the word “church,” applied to their house, has reference to the constant celebration of the praises of God and divine offices there, before the faithful could have obtained public places of worship.—(See Philemon, verse 3; Col. chapter 4.; 1 Cor. chapter 16.) “The first-fruits of Asia.” Some versions have, “the first-fruits of Achaia,” but erroneously, since Stephanas was the first-fruits of Achaia (1 Cor. 16:15). The most learned among critics prefer the reading in our Vulgate, “Asia,” to the one in which Achaia is found: της Ασιας is the reading of the chief MSS.

Romans 16:6 Salute Mary, who hath laboured much among you.

Salute Mary who has laboured much for you.

“Among you,” in the common Greek, εἰς ἡμᾶς, unto us, or for us. The Codex Vaticanus εἰς ὑμᾶς, onto you. Who she was, cannot be determined with certainty.

Romans 16:7 Salute Andronicus and Junias, my kinsmen and fellow prisoners: who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.

Salute Andronicus and Junias, my kinsmen, sharers in my sufferings and incarceration for Christ, who are distinguished among the preachers of the gospel, and have this advantage over me, that they believed in Christ before I received that grace.

“My kinsmen,” probably of the same tribe of Benjamin; for there were a great many at Rome of Jewish extraction, who would be equally his kinsmen, if the words merely regarded their being of Jewish origin. “Junias,” is more probably supposed, from the following words, “of note among the Apostles,” i.e., preachers of the gospel, to have been a man, and not the wife of Andronicus, as some imagine. “Fellow-prisoners.” It is not well determined when or where they were in prison with him. They were called to the faith before the Apostle.

Romans 16:8 Salute Ampliatus, most beloved to me in the Lord.

Salute Ampliatus, most dear to me for his piety.

“Most beloved in the Lord,” expressed his Christian affection for him.

Romans 16:9 Salute Urbanus, our helper in Christ Jesus and Stachys, my beloved.  

Salute Urbanus, our co-operator in the work of the gospel, and Stachys, very much beloved by me.

Fr. MacEvilly Offers no comment on this verse.

Romans 16:16 Salute one another with an holy kiss. All the churches of Christ salute you. 

Salute one another with a holy kiss, which is the sign of mutual and holy Christian love. I am so well assured of the charitable feelings of all Christian Churches towards you, that I send you their salutations. 

“With a holy kiss,” the symbol of charity and concord. It was customary with the Christians to salute one another with the words, pax tecum, after the taking of the Holy Eucharist. The men saluted men only; and females those of their own sex, on these occasions. This usage has been long since discontinued in the Church; a vestige of it, however, remains in the kiss of peace given at solemn mass. “All the Churches of Christ salute you.” (“All” is not in the Greek, which simply is, αι εκκλησίαι, the Churches). He knows the charitable feelings of all Churches towards them, and therefore sends their salutation.

From the omission on the part of St. Paul to send his salutations to St. Peter, Protestestants attempt to derive an argument in proof of their unfounded assertion—viz., that St. Peter never was at Rome. But the fact of his having been at Rome, and his having been put to death with St. Paul, under Nero, is so well attested by undoubted historical evidence, that it is needless to dwell on the subject. Why, then, did not St. Paul salute him? Simply because St. Paul knew that he was not at Rome at the time. He was engaged in preaching the gospel in Britain or Spain, or Africa, as we are assured by Innocent, &c., quoted by Baronius and Bellarmine; for he had not returned thither since the time of his expulsion, together with the other Jews, by the edict of Claudius. And if St. Peter were at Rome at this time, would he not have settled the disputes which elicited this Epistle from St. Paul?

Romans 16:22 I, Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.

I, Tertius, who, at the dictation of Paul, have penned this Epistle, salute you in the Lord.

“Tertius” was the amanuensis whom Saint Paul employed in writing this Epistle: and, hence, while writing, he speaks of himself in the first person: “I, Tertius, salute,” &c.

Romans 16:23 Caius, my host, and the whole church saluteth you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, saluteth you: and Quartus, a brother.

Caius, my host, and the host of all Christians, from what quarter soever they come, salutes you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city of Corinth, salutes you; and so does Quartus, a brother.

“Caius, my host, and the whole Church, saluteth you.” According to the Greek, it is “Caius, my host, και ὅλης τῆς ἐκκλησίας, and (the host) of the entire Church.” i.e., of all Christians from whatever quarter they come, which is a great commendation of his hospitality. “Erastus, the treasurer of the city.” (The Greek for “Treasurer” is οικονομος,). He had charge of the public treasury of Corinth, where this Epistle is generally supposed to have been written.

Romans 16:24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

Romans 16:25 Now to him that is able to establish you, according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which was kept secret from eternity;

Eternal glory be given to Almighty God, who is able to strengthen you and confirm you in the doctrine of the gospel, which I, everywhere preach; and which Jesus Christ himself also preached; so as to reveal that great mystery (of the Incarnation and Redemption of mankind through Jesus Christ) which was hidden from the world during all past ages.

This and the two following verses are, in some Greek copies, read at the close of chapter 14, and they are explained in the same place by St. Chrysostom and others. However, the most ancient of manuscripts (the Alexandrian and Vatican), and all Latin interpreters, place them as they are here, and make them the final conclusion of the Epistle; and this arrangement is clearly preferable, since as chap 15 is a continuation of the matter treated of in chap. 14, it is not likely that the Apostle would interrupt, and break the connexion of his subject by the intermediate insertion of these verses in that place. In these words, then, the Apostle bursts forth into the praises of God, for the great benefit of man’s salvation and justification, the nature and mysterious economy of which he had been explaining throughout the entire Epistle, which is thus brought to a suitable close.

“Now to him that is able to establish you,” i.e., to God, “be honour and glory,” (verse 27); for, the sense of the entire passage is suspended until we come to verse 27. “According to my gospel” which I everywhere preach. “And the preaching of Jesus Christ.” Some interpret these words as a mere explanation of the preceding, thus: “according to my gospel and the preaching concerning Jesus Christ.” The interpretation of Piconio has been adopted in the Paraphrase. “According to the revelation of the mystery,” i.e., by the preaching of which gospel is brought about the revelation of the great mystery or secret truth. He refers to the redemption of man through Christ, and the adorable system of supernatural Providence, the great foundation of which was Christ’s incarnation. “Kept secret from eternity.” The Greek words for “eternity” are, χρονοις αιωνιοις, “during the worldly times,” or all preceding ages. The words are used to express eternity.

Romans 16:26 (Which now is made manifest by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the precept of the eternal God, for the obedience of faith) known among all nations:

But which mystery now, under the law of grace, has been manifested by the Scriptures of the Prophets, who wrote beforehand concerning Christ and his gospel, and has been made known among all the nations, by the express command of God, commissioning and delegating his Apostles to preach to them, so as to bring all unto the obedience of faith.

“Which,” i.e., mystery (as appears from the Greek, φανερωθεντος, “manifested,” referring to μυστηριου, which preceded, with which also “kept secret,” σεσιγημενου, verse 25, and “known,” γνωρισθεντος, verse 26, agree), “has been made manifest by the scriptures of the prophets,” who wrote and predicted concerning the mysteries of our Saviour’s life and gospel: “According to the command of the eternal God.” These words are to be connected with the last words of the verse, “known among all nations.” This mystery, and all the gospel economy founded on it, were by God’s command proclaimed by the Apostles, and made known among all the nations of the earth, “for the obedience of the faith,” so as to induce them to embrace the faith.

Romans 16:27 To God, the only wise, through Jesus Christ, to whom be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.  

To the Omnipotent and only Wise God, (I say), be rendered honour and glory, through Jesus Christ for ever and ever. Amen.

“To God the only Wise,” i.e., alone Wise by his nature and essence. Here the sentence, commenced at verse 25, is completed. The words “to whom” are redundant; they are used by the Apostle, according to a Hebrew idiom. In these last verses, the Apostle closes the Epistle as he had begun it, by asserting that the gospel which he preached contained nothing false or novel; that it was perfectly in accordance with the oracles and predictions of the ancient prophets. The words “made manifest by the scriptures of the prophets,” verse 26; and “which he hath promised by his prophets in the holy scriptures,” (chapter 1, verse 2), are almost identical.

I cannot forbear quoting the beautiful paraphrase of these three verses, as given by A’Lapide: “O King of ages! O Revealer of the mystery concealed during the ages of eternity! O eternal God, immortal and invisible! O thou, who dwellest in the lofty mountains of eternity; who, from thy elevated eminence, dost behold the narrow span of our life, and of all times, gliding beneath thee; to thee be honour, to thee be glory, for ever and ever! Thou, by thy triumph over death, hast thrown open to us the portals of a happy eternity. Grant us to live always mindful of it—justly, soberly, and piously—so as to be one day partakers of it. Grant us to pass this fleeting moment of life in such a way, by the exercise of heroism and sanctity, as to merit admission to thy enjoyment for ever; to praise thee, to celebrate thee, in the company of all thy angels and saints. O true charity! O beloved eternity! My God and my all.” Amen.

O sweet and amiable Mary, Mother of Jesus, powerful Virgin! pray for us.

The ordinary Greek copies have the following subscription:—“Written to the Romans from Corinth by Phœbe, Deaconess of the Church at Cenchreæ.” This, although correct, is not to be regarded as belonging to the Sacred Text. It was most likely, added by some Greek author to point out the bearer of the Epistle, and the place where it was written. It was wanting, either altogether, or in part, in the ancient MSS. In the Codex Vaticanus we simply have: “Written to the Romans from Corinth.”

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Commentaries for the Thirty-First Week in Ordinary Time, Year I

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 27, 2015

THIRTY-FIRST SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME, YEAR B

2015 Nov. 1. Commentaries for the Solemnity of All Saints.

Commentaries for the Thirty-First Sunday in Ordinary Time, Year B.

Last Week’s Posts.

MONDAY OF THE THIRTY-FIRST WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

In 2015 this day falls on November 2, the Commemoration of all the Faithful Departed (All Souls Day). The first link is to commentaries on the readings for this commemoration. The links that follow relate to the ordinary readings for this day/week.

Commentaries for the Solemnity of All Saints.

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 11:29-36. On 25-36.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 11:29-36.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 11:29-36. On 25-36.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 11:29-36.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 69.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 69.

Cornelius a Lapide’s Commentary on Luke 14:12-14.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 14:12-14.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Luke 14:12-14.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 14:12-14.

TUESDAY OF THE THIRTY-FIRST WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 12:5-16. On 3-16.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 12:5-16. On 1-16.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 12:5-16.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 12:5-16.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 131.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 131.

Pope Benedict XVI’s Commentary on Psalm 131.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 14:15-24.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 14:15-24.

WEDNESDAY OF THE THIRTY-FIRST WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

St John Chrysostom’s Homiletic Commentary on Romans 13:8-10.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 13:8-10. On 7-10.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 13:8-10.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 13:8-10.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 13:8-10.

Bishop Bonomelli’s Homily on Romans 13:8-10.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 112.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 112.

A Patristic/Medieval Commentary on Psalm 112.

Pope Benedict XVI’s Commentary on Psalm 112.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 14:25-33.

Cornelius a Lapide’s Commentary on Luke 14:25-33.

St Cyril of Alexandria’s Homiletic Commentary on Luke 14:25-33. On 25-35.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 14:25-33.

THURSDAY OF THE THIRTY-FIRST WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 14:7-12.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 14:7-12.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 14:7-12.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 14:7-12.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 27.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 27.

St Thomas Aquinas’ Lecture on Psalm 27.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 27.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 15:1-10.

St Cyril of Alexandria’s Homiletic Commentary on Luke 15:1-10.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Luke 15:1-10.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 15:1-10. On 1-32.

FRIDAY OF THE THIRTY-FIRST WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 15:14-21. On 14-24.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 15:14-21.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 15:14-21.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 15:14-21.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 98.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 98.

Patristic/Medieval Commentary on Psalm 98.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 98.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 16:1-8. On 1-9.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Luke 16:1-8. On 1-9.

St Cyril of Alexandria’s Homiletic Commentary on Luke 16:1-8. On 1-9.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 16:1-8.

SATURDAY OF THE THIRTY-FIRST WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 16:3-9, 16, 22-27.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 16:3-9, 16, 22-27.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 16:3-9, 16, 22-27.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 145.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 145.

Pope Benedict XVI’s Commentary on Psalm 145.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 16:9-15.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Luke 16:9-15.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 16:9-15.

THIRTY-SECOND SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME, YEAR B

Commentaries for the Thirty-Second Sunday in Ordinary Time, Year B.

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Commentaries for the Thirty-First Sunday in OrdinaryTime, Year B

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 26, 2015

NOTE: In 2015 this Sunday falls on November 1, the Solemnity of All Saints. Commentaries for that Solemnity can be found here.

READINGS AND OFFICE:

Mass Readings in the RNAB Translation. Used in the USA.

Mass Readings in the NJB Translation. Used in most English speaking countries. Scroll down. I’ve seen conflicting reports concerning whether or not it is the JB, or the NJB that is currently used in most English speaking nations. If anyone knows of a Bishop’s Conference site that has a set up similar to the US Bishop’s site linked above (but using the JB or NJB), please let me know.

Divine Office.

Anglican Use Daily Office. ”Briefly, it is a provision for an “Anglican style” liturgy similar to the Book of Common Prayer as an ecclesiastically approved variant on the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church.” More info.

COMMENTARIES ON THE FIRST READING: Deuteronomy 6:2-6.

My Notes on Deuteronomy 6:2-6. Begins with verse 1.

Word-Sunday Notes on Deuteronomy 6:2-6.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Deuteronomy 6:2-6.

Homilist’s Catechism on Deuteronomy 6:2-6.

COMMENTARIES ON THE RESPONSORIAL: Ps 18:2-3, 3-4, 47, 51.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 18.

St Thomas Aquinas’ Lecture on Psalm 18.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 18.

Word-Sunday Notes on Psalm 18.

COMMENTARIES ON THE SECOND READING: Hebrews 7:23-28.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Hebrews 7:23-28.

Father Boylan’s Commentary on Hebrews 7:23-28.

Word-Sunday Notes on Hebrews 7:23-28.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Hebrews 7:23-28.

Homilist’s Catechism on Hebrews 7:23-28.

COMMENTARIES ON THE GOSPEL READING: Mark 12:28-34.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Mark 12:28-34.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Mark 12:28-34.

Word-Sunday Notes on Mark 12:28-34.

Homilist’s Catechism on Mark 12:28-34.

GENERAL RESOURCES: sites that usually deal with the readings as a whole. 

Lector Notes. Brief historical and theological background on the readings. Can be printed out, copied, and used as bulletin insert.

The Bible Workshop. Not yet available.

The Wednesday Word.  It’s about the Sunday readings, but the document is posted on Wednesday, hence the name. Designed for prayer and reflection, the pdf document ends with Father Dom Henry Wansbrough’s reflections on the first and second readings. Fr. Wansbrough is General Editor of the New Jerusalem Bible and contributed commentaries on Matt, Mark, and the Pastorals in A New Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture.

St Charles Borromeo Parish’s Bible Study Notes. Notes on all the readings, usually with some background info as well.

Sacred Page Blog. Not yet available. Catholic biblical scholar Dr. John Bergsma’s reflections on the readings and psalm.

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Commentaries for the Thirtieth Week in Ordinary Time, Year I

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 20, 2015

THIRTIETH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME, YEAR B

Commentaries for the thirtieth Sunday in Ordinary Time, Year B.

Last Week’s Posts.

MONDAY OF THE THIRTIETH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 8:12-17.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 8:12-17.

Father Haydock’s Commentary on Romans 8:12-17.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 8:12-17. On 8-17.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 8:12-17.

St Thomas Aquinas’ Homily Notes on Romans 8:13.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 68.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 68.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 13:10-17.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Luke 13:10-17.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 13:10-17.

TUESDAY OF THE THIRTIETH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 8:18-25. On 18-27.

Father Boylan’s Commentary on Romans 8:18-25.

Father Rickaby’s Commentary on Romans 8:18-25.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 8:18-25.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 8:18-25. On 14-30.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 8:18-25.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 126.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 126.

A Patristic/Medieval Commentary on Psalm 126.

Pope Benedict XVI’s Commentary on Psalm 126.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 13:18-21.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 13:18-21.

WEDNESDAY OF THE THIRTIETH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

In 2015 this day falls on Oct. 28, the Feast of Saints Simon and Jude, Apostles. The first link is to commentaries on the readings for that feast. Commentary on the normal readings for the day follow.

Oct 28~Commentaries for the Feast of Saints Simon and Jude, Apostles.

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 8:26-30.

Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 8:26-30.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 8:26-30. On 14-30.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 8:26-30.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 13.

St Thomas Aquinas’ Lecture on Psalm 13.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 13:22-30.

My Notes on Luke 13:22-30.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 13:22-30.

THURSDAY OF THE THIRTIETH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 8:31b-39. On 31-39.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 8:31b-39. On 31-39.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 8:31b-39. On 31-39.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 8:31b-39.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 109.

Father McSwiney’s Introduction to Psalm 109. St Joe of O Blog.

Pending: St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 109.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 13:31-35.

St Cyril of Alexandria’s Homiletic Commentary on Luke 13:31-35.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 13:31-35.

FRIDAY OF THE THIRTIETH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 9:1-5.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 9:1-5.

Pending: Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Romans 9:1-5.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 9:1-5.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 147.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 147.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 147:12-20.

St Cyril of Alexandria’s Commentary on Luke 14:1-6.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 14:1-6.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 14:1-6.

SATURDAY OF THE THIRTIETH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Romans 11:1-2a, 11-12, 25-29.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 11:1-2a, 11-12, 25-29. On all of chapter 11.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Romans 11:1-2a, 11-12, 25-29.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 94.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 94.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 14:1, 7-11.

St Cyril of Alexandria’s Commentary on Luke 14:1, 7-11.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 14:1, 7-11.

THIRTY-FIRST SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME, YEAR B

In 2015 this Sunday falls on Nov 1, the Solemnity of All Saints. The first link is to commentaries for the feast. The remaining links are for the regular Sunday.

November 1~Commentaries for the Solemnity of All Saints.

Pending: Commentaries for the Thirty-First Sunday in Ordinary Time, Year B.

Next Week’s Posts.

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November 1~Commentaries for the Solemnity of All Saints

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 20, 2015

READINGS AND OFFICE:

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

COMMENTARIES ON THE FIRST READING: Revelation 7:2-4, 9-14.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Revelation 7:2-4, 9-14.

St Bede the Venerable on Revelation 7:2-4, 9-14.

COMMENTARIES ON THE RESPONSORIAL: Psalm 24.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 24.

A Patristic/Medieval Commentary on Psalm 24:1-6. Covers the verses used today. Part 2 here.

St Thomas Aquinas’ Lecture on Psalm 24.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 24.

COMMENTARIES ON THE SECOND READING: 1 John 3:1-3.

Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on 1 John 3:1-3.

St Augustine on 1 John 3:1-3.

Cornelius a Lapide’s Commentary on 1 John 3:1-3.

Navarre Bible Commentary on 1 John 3:1-3.

COMMENTARIES ON THE GOSPEL: Matthew 5:1-12.

St John Chrysostom’s Homiletic Commentary on Matthew 5:1-12.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Matthew 5:1-12.

Cornelius a Lapide’s Commentary on Matthew 5:1-12.

Father Maas Commentary on Matthew 5:1-12.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Matthew 5:1-12.

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Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Romans 11:1-36

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 20, 2015

1. I SAY then: Has God rejected his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.
2. God has not rejected his people, whom he foreknew. Know you not in Elias what the Scripture says: how he questions God against Israel:
3. Lord, they have slain thy prophets, dug down thine altars: and I alone am left, and they seek my life.
4. But what says the divine answer to him? there are left to me seven thousand men, who have not bent knees before Baal.
5. So therefore in this time also remnants have been saved according to the election of grace.
6. But if of grace, now not of works: otherwise grace is not grace
.

Chapter 11. In this chapter the Apostle points out that the rejection of the Jews is only temporary, and their conversion deferred to a later time.

1. I am also am an Israelite. I am a living proof that God has not rejected his people. I am an Israelite by descent, a child of Abraham, and of the tribe of Benjamin, and yet I am a Christian and an apostle of Christ. It is very probable that he was a descendant of his illustrious namesake, king Saul. On the failure of the expectation of the Jews that Christ, as head of the house of David, would make them independent of the Roman power, which disappointment caused his death, they turned to Saul, whose energy and ambition, and the purity of his patriotism, gave them great hopes. If this was the case, his conversion must have been a severe blow to the turbulent government of the Jews.

2. God has not rejected his people, those at any rate of them who he foreknew would believe in Christ. Or, the people whose future greatness he predicted while they were yet only a single household, in the days of Abraham. Nor am I the only believer in Christ. In Elias, in the person of Elias; or by a Hebrew idiom, about Elias. Verses 3 and 4 of the text quote the words of 2 Kings 19:14, 18. The altars of God were overthrown by Achab and Jezabel out of hatred for the worship of God. Their original construction was, however, a violation of God’s command in Deut 16:2, and they were finally destroyed from motives of piety by the kings of Juda, Ezechias and Josias. Elias was informed that he was not, as he suppored, the only worshipper of the true God left, for there were yet seven thousand men, heads of families, who had not knelt before Baal. The Greek has τῷ Βααλ, to the statue of Baal, who was a masculine divinity, the word meaning Lord, Cornelius a Lapide is of opinion that the number seven thousand is put for a large and indefinite number, seven being often used in this sense in the Hebrew writings, and of this he gives several instances.

The true servants of God are sometimes lost in the multitude of the ungodly, especially in times of corruption and infidelity. We scarcely know of their existence, and cannot estimate their number. But God knows his own. Preserve me, Lord, for the holy has disappeared. Hide me under the shadow of thy wings. Keep me as the pupil of the eye, since I have hoped in thee and in thy grace.

Thus at this time, the Apostle proceeds, there is a number, to me unknown, possibly few and a mere handful or remnant, but some certainly, of the Hebrew nation, who have been saved, that is justified by faith, according to the election of grace, God’s gratuitous election, calling those who are willing to obey the call, to faith in Jesus Christ. And if this is so, their justification is not to be ascribed to their obedience to the law, by which no one could ever be saved, but is of grace, that is, of God’s free mercy. It is the very nature of the grace of justification, at least in the first and original bestowal of it, that it is not, and it cannot antecedently, be merited, but is God’s gift. Or else it would not be grace, which means this and nothing else, but a reward.

Saint Paul introduces this sentence in this place out of humility, and with reference to himself, claiming no merit for his own conversion. It is an effective argument in favour of the position which this Epistle is intended to establish.

Two answers may be given to the question, why the faithful penitent is justified by God. i. Because he has disposed himself by grace. 2. Because such is the free will of God. These are perfectly reconcilable. And in this way Cornelius a Lapide and Tyrinus consider that the variously-expressed opinions of different Fathers may be reconciled: as when Saint Chrysostom says that a man is elected to justice, because he consented to grace and believed; and Saint Augustine, because God has gratuitously chosen him to justice.

The Greek text adds at the end of verse 6 the following words: But if of works, now not of grace, otherwise work is no more work. The Syriac and Arabic versions have the same. Erasmus thinks the addition superfluous, and not Saint Paul’s, nor in accordance with his meaning. It is not found in the Vulgate.

7. What then? That which Israel sought, he has not attained: but the election has obtained it: and the rest have been blinded.
8. As it is written: God gave them a spirit of compunction: eyes that should not see, and ears that should not hear, even to this day.
9. And David says: Let their table be for a snare, and for capture, and for scandal, and for retribution to them.
10. Let their eyes be darkened that they see not: and do thou always bend down their back
.

7. What then? What is it I am maintaining? that the greater part of the people of Israel, seeking justification by the works of the law, have not attained to it, for want of faith in Christ; but the minority, who have embraced the Christian faith, have obtained justification; the rest were blinded and hardened by their own unbelief. The Greek text has were hardened, or grew hard. The Syriac: were blinded in heart. Directly and properly by their own malice, indirectly hy God’s abandoning them, as explained in ch 9:18, 21, 22.

8. As it is writtcn. Is 29:10. The Apostle does not quote the passage verbatim, but gives approximately the sense of it. A spirit of compunction means here a spirit of blindness, as if the eyes were pricked with the point of a needle, to make them blind. The original has a spirit of sleep. They had eyes to see the miracles of Christ, but saw them not, ears that heard his words, and heard them not. The reference here is to Is 6:10.

9. Their table, the Holy Scriptures, spread before them, for their spiritual nourishment and delight, becomes a snare to take them, a stumbling-stone over which they fall, a retribution bringing God’s anger against them, because they would not in the Scriptures recognise Christ.

10. The eyes of their mind are darkened, and their will bowed down to earthly things, for which alone they care. Ps 68:23, 24. The above is the figurative sense in which the Apostle apphes the language of the Psalm, of which the literal meaning is different. Compare Job 21:14. Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways; and 12:25. God suffers them to grope as in darkness, and wander like the drunk.

11. I say then: have they stumbled to their fall? God forbid. But, by their fault, there is salvation to the Gentiles, to urge them to emulation.
12. But if their fault is the riches of the world, and their diminution the riches of the nations: how much more their fulness!
13. For I speak to you Gentiles: as long as I am the Apostle of the nations, I will do honour to my ministry.
14. If by any means I may provoke my flesh to emulation, and save some of them.
15. For if the loss of them is the reconciliation of the world: what their assumption but life from the dead?

I say then: is their fall irremediable? God forbid. They will rise again. Meanwhile God is making use of it for the salvation of the Gentiles, and the conversion of the Gentiles will in turn move the Jews to emulation, for their conversion. If the fall of the Jews enriches the world, by the spread of the faith among all nations, and the rejection of the Jews who will not believe, their diminution, occasions the sanctification of innumerable multitudes of people of other nations; how much more will the complete conversion of the Jewish people enrich the nations of the earth! I am not afraid to speak openly to you, the Gentiles; for as the Apostle of the Gentiles, I will value and hold in honour my Apostolic ministry. There is nothing I am not ready to do for you; but I am eager also to provoke my own countrymen to emulation by your example, and call at least some of them to faith in Christ, and to salvation. If their rejection has reconciled the world to God, what will their general conversion be, but like a resurrection from the dead, for which therefore you ought with me to hope and pray.

The unbelief of the Jews w’as not in accordance with the will of God; but God’s wisdom made use of it to further the conversion of the rest of the world. It set the Apostolic teachers free to turn to the Gentiles. And the destruction of Jerusalem obtained for the Christian Church the favour and protection of the civil power, who now distinguished between the two, and had the Christians
on their side in the Jewish war. There was no renewal of persecution from the accession of Vespasian in 69 to the reign of Domitian, in 95, and during this period of tranquility the Christian Church increased from a rivulet to a mighty stream. St. John the Evangelist was the only member of the Apostolic College who lived through this period, the others having all suffered in the persecution under Nero. In vs. 12, the Greek text has their fall, or
ruin.

16. But if  the portion is holy, so is the mass; and if the root is holy, the branches also are holy.
17. But if some of the branches were broken, and thou, being a wild olive, hast been grafted among them, and art become a partner in the root and in the richness of the olive.
18. Do not boast against the branches. But if thou boast: thou dost not bear the root, but the root thee
.

6. If the portion is holy, the first fruits, or portion of the corn presented as an oblation, the offering of which was held to consecrate the rest. Or possibly, if the quantity offered was too great to place on the altar, a portion only was used, and was considered to consecrate the whole. The Patriarchs and Prophets of the Hebrew nation were certainly holy, and from them the whole race drew sanctity in a certain degree. The conversion of the whole race is therefore to be hoped and prayed for. The Patriarchs were the first fruits, or delibation, of the Jewish race, and the root of the tree, the branches of which derive sanctity from the root.

17. Some of these branches were broken off, by the rejection and unbelief of the Jews; and thou, the oleaster, the Gentile, grafted in their place, as if by accident. In this situation thou partakest the privileges of the true people of God, the faith and grace of the older Saints, the richness of the olive. Boast not against the rejected branches. And remember that their root now bears thee, thine own was fruitless and sterile.

Calvin argues from vs. 16 that the children of Christian parents do not need baptism, being already holy. This would be true, if all that baptism confers is an exterior and adventitious sanctity, such as can be inherited from Patriarchs and holy men. But it would be equally true of adults, both Jew and Christian.

Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, were all Jews or Hebrews. These are the root of the olive. We are built upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Eph 2:20. Christ said: Salvation is of the Jews, John 4:22. The Patriarchs owe nothing to us, but we owe much to them.

19. Thou wilt say then: the branches were broken off that I might be grafted in.
20. Fairly said: they were broken off for unbelief. But thou standest by faith: think not loftily, but fear.
21, For if God spared not the natural branches, lest perhaps he spare not thee.
22. See, therefore, the goodness and severity of God: to those, indeed, who fell, severity; but the goodness of God to thee, if thou remain in his goodness, otherwise thou too shalt be cut off
.

20. Fairly said. The same causes led to the excision of the old branches and the insertion of the new. The humility of Christ offended the Jews and attracted the Gentiles. They were broken off for incredulity: thou standest by faith. Be not, therefore (in the Greek) lifted up in mind. The Syriac has: let not thy mind be lifted up. For faith may be lost. This passage refutes Calvin’s
assertion that this is impossible.

We adhere to Christ by faith and grace: but humility and fear are the guardians of faith and grace.

21. Lest perhaps he spare not thee. Faith may be lost by apostasy. This was the case with the celebrated Christian apologist Tertullian, who joined the Montanist heresy, and died out of the communion of the Catholic Church, early in the third century, and multitudes of others who are now less known.

22. See the goodness of God in freely offering remission of sins, the gift of the Holy Spirit, and life eternal, to all mankind, on the condition of faith in Christ: and the severity with which he insists upon this condition, without which salvation is impossible. It was this which occasioned the fall of the unbelieving Jews, those who fell, though they were God’s chosen people. His goodness is assured to thee, if thou remain in it, persevering in faith, and in compliance with the laws of God and the Church, failing which, faith may not improbably be lost.

23, But they also, if they remain not in unbelief, shall be grafted in: for God is able to graft them in again,
24. For if thou hast been cut off from the wild olive whence is thy nature, and against nature grafted in the good olive; how much more they, who are by nature, shall be grafted in their own olive?

23. The Jews, if they abandon their incredulity, may be once more grafted into the unity of the Catholic Church. Not only is this possible to God, but it is obviously easy. If thou, the Gentile, hast been removed from the wild olive of thy birth, and grafted in the fruitbearing olive tree of God, with still greater ease can the Jews, sprung originally from the stock of God’s olive, be restored to it again. God is mighty, and nothing but unbelief hinders their restoration.

The grafting a wild shoot on a fruit bearing stock, is a proceeding unknown to the art of cultivation. That the wild shoot so grafted should bear the fruit of the cultivated tree, would be against nature, and a sort of miracle. If it bore any fruit at all it would be the wild fruit of its own original nature. Yet the Gentiles, grafted into God’s olive by Baptism, bear good fruit to God. Much more the descendants of God’s ancient people, and of Patriarchs and Prophets, restored to the original stock whence they were cut off, will bear good fruit.

We ought not to despair of the salvation of any human being, because God is able even of the stones to raise up children to Abraham. Still less should we despair of the salvation of anyone who has received Christian Baptism, in which he was grafted into Christ. If God is able to save Turks and infidels, more easily can he save the Christian, though a sinner.

25. For I would not you should be ignorant, brethren, of this mystery (lest you be wise to yourselves) that blindness in part has happened in Israel, until the fulness of the nations enters.
26. And thus all Israel shall be saved, as it is written: There shall come from Sion who will deliver, and turn away impiety from Jacob.
27. And this covenant to them from me: when I shail have taken away their sins.
28. According to the Gospel indeed they are enemies on your account; but according  to the election they are most beloved on account of the fathers.
29. For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance.
30. For as you also once believed not God, but have now obtained mercy on account of their unbelief:
31. So they also have not now believed for your mercy, that thev also may obtain mercy.
32. For God has concluded all things in unbelief, that on all he may have mercy
.

25. I wish to reveal to you a secret which possibly I should have suppressed, were it not that the knowledge of it is necessary for you, to repress the pride and exultation you are disposed to indulge in on the score of your faith, as knowing more than other men know. (In the Greek, that you may not be arrogant to yourselves.) Blindness of heart has fallen upon a great part of the Jewish nation. (This is the phrase used in the Syriac: the Greek has hardness or obduracy) until the number of the Gentiles who shall believe in Christ have entered the fold of the Church. Then, the number of the Gentile converts being complete, the whole Jewish nation will be converted to God, as predicted in Is 59:20, and 27:9. Their rejection of the Gospel of Christ has, indeed, made them the objects of God’s displeasure, and has at the same time facilitated and expedited your conversion. For God’s original design was the acceptance of Christ by the Jewish people in the first instance. This was defeated by their unbelief, and the message of salvation then offered to you. But they are still beloved on account of God’s choice of their nation in ancient times, and for the fathers’ sake. God’s gifts and promises, once given, are never recalled. You yourselves once believed not in God, but through the incredulity of the Jews you have now received his mercy. So in turn they also are now unbelieving for the very reason that you have obtained mercy; (the Greek, they disbelieve in your mercy, that God can really have extended his mercy to the Gentiles) and God will turn even this ultimately to their salvation, for they will one day believe in Christ for this very reason. For God, in his wonderful providence has permitted all nations successively (the Vulgate has all things, the Greek and the Syriac all men) to fall into unbelief, in the Syriac into disobedience. First the Gentiles, and now the Jews, that each may learn that it is to his gratuitous kindness and mercy alone that they are indebted for their salvation. He has permitted all men, Saint Thomas says, to be bound by the chain of error in some form or other, and from it there is no escape but by the grace of Christ, that God may have mercy upon all, and display this mercy to the whole world without exception.

From the statement of the Apostle in verse 27, and the words of the Prophet Malachi, 4:5, 6, Behold, I will send you Elias the prophet, before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes. And he will convert the heart of the fathers to the sons, and the heart of the sons to their fathers; lest by chance I come and strike the earth with anathema—there has arisen a tradition that the Jewish
nation will be converted to Christ before the end of the  world, and that the Church will be complete in unity and perfection in the union of Jews and Gentiles.

(Some modern writers consider that the prediction, All Israel shall be saved, was fulfilled after the destruction of Jerusalem, and that the great bulk of the Jewish nation was converted to Christ, and absorbed in the Catholic Church, during the interval which elapsed after that event and before the outbreak of the persecution under Domitian. See Hammond, Commentary on the N.T. in loc. In this case the modern Jews are the descendants of those who still remained in unbelief. This is not inconsistent with the view taken above of the prophecy of Malachi.) Note: “Some modern writers” &c.  Piconio was writing in the late 17th century. The opinion of these writers is unknown to me, and I do not recall ever seeing such an interpretation mentioned in historical reviews of the interpretation of Romans 11.

33. O the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How incomprehensible are his judgements and untraceable his ways!
34. For who hath known the sense of the Lord? Or who hath been his counsellor?
35. Or who first gave to him, and it shall be repaid him?
36. For of him, and through him, and in him are all things: to him be glory for ever. Amen
.

What the Apostle has said, is that in the early years of the world the nations fell into idolatry; then by the covenant with Abraham God secured the Hebrew race as his true worshipers; when the Gentiles believed in Christ the Jews fell, from that very circumstance, into unbelief, and finally, when the faith of the Gentiles shall be growing cold, the Jews will at length believe, and the Church be strengthened by the union of Jews and Gentiles. Thus in the midst of the maze of human error God is controlling error itself, and guiding all nations ultimately to the acceptance of his truth and their salvation. The contemplation of this leads him to the exclamation in the text.

33. The riches of the wisdom. The Greek and the Syriac have the depths of the riches and of the wisdom and of the knowledge of God. The riches of God is his mercy to all mankind, to the Gentiles first, then patiently bearing the infidelity of the Jews. His wisdom, in turning the infidelity of the Jews to the salvation of the Gentiles, and the conversion of the Gentiles, by emulation, to the salvation of the Jews. His knowledge of the whole history of mankind, past and future. His decrees are unsearchable by finite understanding, and we cannot trace the mode in which they are carried out.

34. Who has known the mind of the Lord? God is a King who entrusts his mind, or intention, to no created counsellor. And his riches are his own, and none has lent to him.

36. Cornelius a Lapide thinks that this passage, or at least the general custom of the Apostles, suggested the formula always used in the Church, Glory to the Father and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. The other verse of the doxology. As it was in the beginning, &c., was added by the Council of Nice. See the words of Saint Basil, cited by Baronius, t. III, anno 325.

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October 28~Commentaries for the Feast of Saints Simon and Jude, Apostles

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 20, 2015

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on Ephesians 2:19-22.

Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Ephesians 2:19-22.

Father Callan’s Commentary on Ephesians 2:19-22.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Ephesians 2:19-22.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 19.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 19.

St Thomas Aquinas’ Lecture on Psalm 19.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 19.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 6:12-16.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 6:12-16.

MORE FOR THE FEAST OF ST SIMON AND ST JUDE:

Pope Benedict XVI’s Catechesis on Saints Simon and Jude.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on the Epistle of St Jude.

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