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Archive for the ‘Notes On Joel’ Category

Wednesday, February 13, 2013: Resources for Ash Wednesday (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms)

Posted by Dim Bulb on February 10, 2013

ORDINARY FORM
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READINGS AND OFFICE:

  • Readings in the NJB Translation. Scroll down. Used in most English speaking countries. For some reason the site has the Gospel reading before the second reading.
  • Anglican Use Daily Office. ”Briefly, it is a provision for an “Anglican style” liturgy similar to the Book of Common Prayer as an ecclesiastically approved variant on the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church.” More info.

GENERAL RESOURCES: sites that usually deal with the readings as a whole (with some occasional specialty studies). Commentaries on individual readings are listed further below.

  • Word Sunday. Although called “Word Sunday” the site also offers resources on holy days, solemnities, etc. The readings in both and literal translation, notes on the text, podcast, children’s reading.
  • Unofficial LectionaryReadings from the Douay-Rheims Challoner version followed by notes from the old Haydock Commentary.
  • SacerdosGives the theme of the readings, the doctrinal message, and pastoral application.
  • Lector NotesBrief historical and theological background on the readings. Can be printed out, copied, and used as bulletin insert.
  • The Bible Workshop. Links to several relevant articles, contains a reading guide to the gospel text, a comparison of the readings, suggestions for a lesson (i.e., homily).

COMMENTARIES ON THE FIRST READING: Joel 2:12-18.

COMMENTARIES ON THE RESPONSORIAL: Psalm 51:3-4, 5-6ab, 12-13, 14 and 17.

COMMENTARIES ON THE SECOND READING: 2 Corinthians 5:20-6:2.

COMMENTARIES ON THE GOSPEL: Matthew 6:1-6, 16-18.

EXTRAORDINARY FORM
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MISSAL AND BREVIARY:

COMMENTARIES ON THE LESSON: Joel 2:12-19.

COMMENTARIES ON THE GOSPEL: Matthew 6:16-21.

HOMILIES: Pending.

Posted in Bible, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, fathers of the church, Latin Mass Notes, Lent, liturgy, Notes on 2 Corinthians, Notes On Joel, Notes on the Gospel of Matthew, Notes on the Lectionary, NOTES ON THE PSALMS, Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

My Notes on Joel 2:18-27

Posted by Dim Bulb on May 30, 2012

Most Scripture links are to the NRSV Anglicized Version. On occasion, the chapter and verse numbering in the NRSV differs from that of the NAB, where this occurs, I also include a link to the NAB (with a few exceptions in the background material).

Background:

A. Authorship, Date, Place of Composition~

1.  All that we know of Joel for certain is what we are told in the superscription (Joel 1:1), which is paltry indeed: his name was Joel, and his Father was Pethuel.  The content of the book has led to the supposition that he was either a cultic prophet or a priest, due to his “familiarity with the Jewish liturgy (Joel 1:13-14; Joel 2:15-17), and devotion to the sancturary (Joel 1:8-9; Joel 2:27; Joel 4:16-17)”~Jerome Biblical Commentary 25:2.

It should be noted that their is nothing in the book to lead us to believe that Joel authored it himself, though this is possible.  It is also possible that he had a scribe write down the prophecies (see Jeremiah 36), or, that the work exists like our Gospels: an inspired disciple was moved to record the teaching of the prophet.

2.  Unlike most of the other works of the writing prophets Joel’s superscription (Joel 1:1) lacks any indication of when his ministry took place.  This fact has caused a number of “guesses” to be made concerning this issue.  Essentially, there are four major theories: (1) 9th century BC, probably during the reign of Joash.  (2) During the last 5 decades of the Kingdom of Judah (David) which fell to Babylon in 587 BC.  (3) circa 520-500 BC, during or after the return from Babylonian Exile.  (4) During the Persian period, after the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah, sometime between 530 and 350 BC.  Most scholars today choose number four as the most likely time period and narrow time the date to circa 400.

3.  The content of the book indicates that the work, or at least the prophet’s ministry, was conducted in Judah, and especially its capital of Jerusalem.

BThe Unity of  Joel~

For about a century and a half the unity of the Book of Joel has been questioned, with some postulating that chapters 1 & 2 were written by a hand different from that which produced chapters 3 & 4.  Other scholars maintain that the work is a unity, noting literary connection between the allegedly disparate parts (compare Joel 1:15 and Joel 2:1 with Joel 3:4 and Joel 4:14; also Joel 2:27 with Joel 4:17).  I find the reasons for a single author  more plausible (see the Joel commentaries in the Jerome Biblical Commentary and The New Catholic Commentary On Holy Scripture).

Most scholars divide Joel into two major sections, with the first corresponding to chapters 1 and 2, and the second with chapters 3 and 4.  (But see Volume 1 of Marvin Sweeney’s The Twelve Prophets for a different structure).  With Sweeney I think that the dividing point between the two major sections is at Joel 2:18.

C. Division of the Book~

The book opens with a superscription in the first person titular (or archival) style (Joel 1:1).

The first major part of Joel is chapter Joel 1:2-2:18:

Chapter 1 is divided thus: A plague of locusts has descended upon the nation, the likes of which had not been seen before (Joel 1:2-4).  This leads to a call for liturgical lamentation to be done by drunkards (Joel 1:5-7); by the people in general Joel 1:8-10); by farmers and husbandmen (Joel 1:11-12); and priests (Joel 1:13) who are to gather together the people for the liturgy (Joel 1:14).

This is followed by a cry of alarm (Joel 1:15), and reasons for the alarm (Joel 1:16-20).

Chapter 2 opens with a statement of the threat posed (Joel 2:1-11).  Inasmuch as chapter 1 has spoken of the threat as an existing reality we should perhaps see these verses as a threat of something to come, a worse locust plague or, more likely in my opinion, an army of men who would, like the locusts, destroy the land to such an extent that the former destructive invasions of Assyria and Babylon would look of little account.  This is the army of Israel’s God, who, because of their infidelity, now uses a foreign army as his instrument of punishment (an idea not foreign to the Bible, see Isaiah 10:5-11)

Locusts were one of the punishments God said he would bring against Israel if they fell away from the covenant and its demands (Deuteronomy 28:38), and, apparently, if this didn’t check them an army of invaders would be sent (Deut 28:49-57).  It is not then hard to see that a locust plague and an invading army could be closely associated in their effects (see Judges 6:5, Judges 7:12; Jer 46:23; Nahum 3:15-17).  Indeed, as Theodoret notes, “If one carefully considers the head of a locust, he will find it very much like that of a horse.”  In fact, the Italian word for locust (cavaletta) means “little horse;” and the German word (heupferd) means “hay horse.”  The comparison of locust to war horses is not unknown in the Bible (Job 39:19-20).

The people have sinned against the covenant and punishment has come (Joel 1), but an even greater threat looms (Joel 2:1-11), thus the call to repentance which forms the heart of our first reading for Ash Wednesday (Joel 2:12-17, with 18 capping off the passage and providing a transition to the second major part, Joel 2:19-3:21, [NAB 2:19-4:21]).

The second major part of Joel is, as just indicated, Joel 2:19-3:21, [NAB 2:19-4:21]:

Some scholars divide part two into two major sections:

A. Joel 2:18-32 [NAB 2:18-3:5].

B. Joel 3:1-21 [NAB 4:1-21].

Others (e.g., the original NAB) divide it into three major sections:

A. Joel 2:18-32 [NAB 2:18-3:5].

B. Joel 3:1-16 [NAB Joel 4:1-16].

C. Joel 3:17-21 [NAB 4:17-21].

D. Division of Joel 2:18-27~

Joel 2:18. Provides a transition between parts 1 (Joel 1:2-2:17) and 2 (Joel 2:19-3:21, [NAB 2:19-4:21]).

Joel 2:19-20. Part 1 ended with a call to gather the people for a liturgy of repentance; these verses give us God’s response to that.

Joel 2:21-23. Land (vs 21) and beasts (vs 22) are told not to fear, and the people (vs 23) are told to be glad, for the situation of punishment highlighted in part 1 has been (or is being) reversed.

Joel 2:24-27. Builds upon verse 23, what God has done for his people.

MY NOTES ON JOEL 2:18-27

Joe 2:18  Then was the LORD jealous for his land, and had pity on his people.

This verse is transitional, capping off, as it were, the preceding verses and preparing for what follows.  Jealous means burning zeal, and is related to several words used in verse 13 (gracious, rich in mercy, both implying familial love).  Pity is the Hebrew word chamal, which means softness.  God’s love and His openness to the repentant belies his seemingly hard edges.

The second major part of Joel opens with Joel 2:18 and basically describes God’s response to Israel and the nations in light of what they have suffered (chapter 1), and avoided (Joel 2:1-11), by repentance (Joel 2:12-17).  The produce of the land will once again be plentiful (Joel 2:19a, 21-26), and the reproach of nations will become a thing of the past (Joel 2:19b-20, 26b-27).  Sometime after this more blessings will come (Joel 2:28-29, [3:1-3 in NAB]).  These blessings will be poured out on all mankind, not just Israel (Joel 2:30-32, [3:4-5 in NAB], see Acts 2:39.  Also Rom 10:12-13:2 which ends with an appeal to Joel 2:32a, 3:5a in NAB).  The salvation of the nations is also a time of judgment (Joel 3, chapter 4 NAB, ) for what the nations had done to Israel.

Joe 2:19  And the Lord answered, and said to his people: Behold I will send you corn, and wine, and oil, and you shall be filled with them: and I will no more make you a reproach among the nations.

I will send you corn, wine, and oil, and you shall be filled with them. Reversing the situation which had befallen them as a result of their sins (see Joel 1:5-12, and 1:15-17). The lack of grain, wine and oil, were the result of a locust plague (Joel 1:4), a punishment Moses told the people would befall them if they broke the covenant (Deut 28:38-40).

I will no more make you a reproach among the nations. Punishment for covenant infidelity included the rising up of enemies, military invasion, siege (Deut 28:49-57), and exile (Deut 28:63-68). This punishment had not yet fallen upon Joel’s audience, and he was preaching repentance to ensure that it didn’t (see Joel 2:17).

Joe 2:20  but I will remove far off from you the northern army, and will drive it into a land barren and desolate, its forepart into the eastern sea, and its hinder part into the western sea; and its stench shall come up, and its ill savor shall come up, because it hath done great things.

The northern army is often taken as a reference to the locusts mentioned earlier in Joel, though some scholars think it a reference to an invading army. In my opinion (for whatever it’s worth) the locusts were a harbinger of a worse fate-an invading army-but the invasion had not yet taken place. The people have turned to the Lord as a result of his punishment but the invasion of an army has not been averted, an attack will come.  The fate of the locusts could be taken as an assurance that human enemies will be overcome by God on behalf of his faithful, repentant, people (for more on this see my notes on the phrase And its stench shall come up, and its ill savor shall come up, because it hath done great things).

The north was the traditional invasion route into the promised land (Jer 1:13-14; Jer 4:6; Jer 6:1; Ezek 38:6; Ezek 38:15; Ezek 39:2).

The invader will be driven into a land barren and desolate. What they have turned the promised land into will now become their home, while the promised land itself will be fruitful once again.

Concerning the invader we further read: its forepart (will be driven) into the eastern sea, and its hinder part (will be driven) into the western sea. Forepart and hinder part (front and back) designate the totality of the invaders; from first to last they will be driven into the sea. The eastern sea being the Mediterranean, the western sea being the Dead Sea. The punishments here (barren, desolate land, seas) is to be taken figuratively, indicating the removal (or destruction) of the locusts without necessarily telling us how it was done.

And its stench shall come up, and its ill savor shall come up, because it hath done great things. A better translation of great things (הגדיל) would be “proud things,” or “arrogant things. ” As I mentioned in the background section of this post, God sometimes uses invading armies to punish his people and bring them to repentance (Deut 28:49-57). Often, in their pride, these invaders go far beyond what the Lord had intended and bring down punishment upon themselves (Isa 10:5-34). Locusts, of course, are incapable of pride, but their fate is here being used as a warning against an invading army. God has decided not to punish his people with an invasion, but if his rod of anger and staff of wrath (a foreign potentate and his army, see Isa 10:5) have other ideas, they will come to naught.

Joe 2:21  Fear not, O land, be glad and rejoice; for the LORD hath done great things.
Joe 2:22  Be not afraid, ye beasts of the field; for the pastures of the wilderness do spring, for the tree beareth its fruit, the fig-tree and the vine do yield their strength.

Announces the reversal of the situation described in Joel 1:5-10. The call to weep and wail (Joel 1:5, 11) is changed into an exhortation to be glad and rejoice. Joy and gladness, having been cut off from the House (Temple) of God (Joel 1:16), is to return. The groaning of beasts, the perplexity of the cattle, and the desolation suffered by the sheep due to the land’s barrenness (Joel 1:18) is at an end; the beasts of the field are bidden, be not afraid.  The wasted ground (Joel 1:10) will become fruitful. The once starving beasts (Joel 1:20) will be fed. The Lord has done these great things, exalting himself and his people and land over the great things (arrogant things) done to them (Joel 2:20).

Joe 2:23  Be glad then, ye children of Zion, and rejoice in the LORD your God; for he giveth you the former rain in just measure, and he causeth to come down for you the rain, the former rain and the latter rain, in the first month. An alternate translation of this verse is given and commented upon below.

The fire (Joel 1:19-20) and the drought (Joel 1:12) which withered up the vines, fig trees, the date trees, pomegranates and apple trees-and joy among the people as well!-is now reversed. The former and the latter rain, which accompanied the spring and autumn growing seasons, will return.

Translation Given Above: Joe 2:23  Be glad then, ye children of Zion, and rejoice in the LORD your God; for he giveth you the former rain in just measure, and he causeth to come down for you the rain, the former rain and the latter rain, in the first month.

Alternate Translation (Douay-Rheims): Joe 2:23  And you, O children of Sion, rejoice, and be joyful in the Lord your God: because he hath given you a teacher of justice, and he will make the early and the latter rain to come down to you as in the beginning.

The differences are mainly minor and stylistic and/or the result of the translator’s decisions. The term former rain in the first translation becomes teacher of justice in the alternate. This alternate rendering is found in the Targums, Symmachus’ Greek Version and the Latin Vulgate. It is the rendering given by the famed Jewish commentator of the Middle Ages, Rashi, and is found as an alternate reading in the KJV margin. It is still employed by a number of modern translations, including the NAB. The differing translations arise from the fact that the Hebrew word המורה can mean both early rain or teacher (for teacher see 2 Kings 17:28; Job 36:22; Prov 5:13; Isa 30:20; Hab 2:18). In the Hebrew text the word is related to לצדקה, derived from צדקה, justice, righteousness. I’m not sure why this is so, but rain is sometimes used as an image of teaching: Let my doctrine gather as the rain, let my speech distil as the dew, as a shower upon the herb, and as drops upon the grass (Deut 32:2). And as the rain and the snow come down from heaven, and return no more thither, but soak the earth, and water it, and make it to spring, and give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater: So shall my word be, which shall go forth from my mouth: it shall not return to me void, but it shall do whatsoever I please, and shall prosper in the things for which I sent it (Isa 55:10-11).

The teacher of justice (righteousness) is thought by some scholars to be a reference to Joel himself. For others it is a reference to the second Elijah predicted in Malachi 3:1 and Mal 4:5-6 [NAB 3:23-24]. It was interpreted in a messianic sense by the early Christians.

Even a Jew paraphrases, “But ye, O children of Zion, above all other nations, be glad and rejoice in the Lord your God. For in Him ye shall have perfect joy, in the time of your captivity. For He will give you an instructor to righteousness; and He is the king Messias,which shall teach them the way in which they shall walk, and the doings which they shall do.” The grounds for so rendering the word are; 1 ) such is almost its uniform meaning. 2) The righteousness spoken of is most naturally understood of righteousness in man; it is a condition which is the result and object of God’s gifts, not the Righteousness of God. But “He hath given you the early rain unto righteousness,” i. e. that ye may be righteous, is an unwonted expression. 3) There is a great emphasis on the word, which is not used in the later part of the verse, where rain, (whether actual, or symbolical of spiritual blessings) is spoken of. 4) The following words, and He maketh the rain to descend for you, according to the established Hebrew idiom, relates to a separate action, later, in order of time or of thought, than the former. But if the former word moreh signified early rain, both would mean one and the same thing. We should not say, “He giveth you the former rain to righteousness, and then He maketh the rain, the former rain and the latter rain to descend; ” nor doth the Hebrew.

It seems then most probable, that the Prophet prefixes to all the other promises, that first all-containing promise of the Coming of Christ. Such is the wont of the Prophets, to go on from past judgments and deliverances, to Him Who is the centre of all this cycle of God’s dispensations, the Son manifest in the Flesh. He had been promised as a Teacher when that intermediate dispensation of Israel began, the Prophet like unto Moses (Deut 18:15). His Coming old Jacob looked to, I have longed for Thy salvation, O Lord (Gen 49:18). Him, well known and longed for by the righteous of old, Joel speaks of as the subject of rejoicing, as Zecharaiah did afterwards, Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion; behold thy King cometh unto thee (Zech 9:9). So Joel here, Exult and joy in the Lord thy God; for He giveth, or will give thee, the Teacher unto righteousness, i. e. the result and object of Whose Coming is righteousness; or, as Daniel says, to bring in everlasting righteousness (Dan 9:24); and Isaiah, By His knowledge, i. e. by the knowledge of Him, shall My righteous Servant justify many, i. e. make many righteous (Isa 53:11). How His coming should issue in righteousness, is not here said. It is presupposed. But Joel speaks of His Coming, as a gift, He shall give you; as Isaiah says, unto us a Son is given; and that, as the Teacher, as Isaiah says I have given Him a witness to the peoples, a Prince and a Commander unto the peoples; and that, for righteousness (Isa 54:4).

“It is the wont of the holy prophets,” says S. Cyril, “on occasion of good things promised to a part or a few, to introduce what is more general or universal. And these are the things of Christ. To this then the discourse again proceeds. For when was ground given to the earth to rejoice? When did the Lord do mighty things, but when the Word, being God, became Man, that, flooding all below with the goods from above, He might be found to those who believe in Him, as a river of peace, a torrent of pleasure, as the former and latter rain, and the giver of all spiritual fruitfulness?” (E.B. Pusey. The author was an Anglican who relied heavily on the Fathers of the Church in his interpretation of the Minor Prophets).

Joe 2:24  And the floors shall be filled with wheat, and the presses shall overflow with wine, and oil.

Reverses the situation of Joel 1:5, Joel 1:17. Wheat, the basis for bread, wine and oil were considered the stay and staff of life. Basic to all the needs of man’s life are water and fire and iron and salt and wheat flour and milk and honey, the blood of the grape, and oil and clothing (Sirach 29:26 RSV see also Ps 104:14-15). The wise man goes on to note: All these are for good to the godly, just as they turn into evils for sinners (Sirach 39:27 RSV). No doubt he has in mind the fact that wheat, wine, oil, etc., were promised in abundance to the Israelites if they maintained covenant fidelity(Deut 7:12-13); their absence would be the curse for covenant infidelity (Deut 28:38-48).

Joe 2:25  And I will restore to you the years that the locust hath eaten, the canker-worm, and the caterpillar, and the palmer-worm, my great army which I sent among you.

I will restore. The Hebrew word   ושׁלמתי (and its Greek equivalents) is vow terminology, usually used in reference to what man owes God: When thou hast made a vow to the Lord thy God, thou shalt not delay to pay it (ושׁלמתי): because the Lord thy God will require it. And if thou delay, it shall be imputed to thee for a sin (Deut 23:22. See also 2 Sam 15:7; Ps 50:14; Isa 19:21). Grain, wine and oil were used as sacrificial offerings to God, and these had been cut off (Joel 1:13). In chapter 2 the people had been called to repentance in these words: Now, therefore, saith the Lord. Be converted to me with all your heart, in fasting, and in weeping, and mourning. And rend your hearts, and not your garments and turn to the Lord your God: for he is gracious and merciful, patient and rich in mercy, and ready to repent of the evil.  Who knoweth but (NAB “Perhaps”) he will return, and forgive, and leave a blessing behind him, sacrifice and libation to the Lord your God? (Joel 2:12-14). The question “who knoweth?” will be answered; the “perhaps” will become reality. God is vowing that the people will be able to offer their vows (sacrifice and libation) again, having been purified of their hypocritical approach to God.

Years is probably a reference to the growing seasons in the promised land, not to actual years.

The canker-worm, and the caterpillar, and the palmer-worm. Translation of these words differ among the various English versions, but the reference is to the various types of locust which reeked havoc on the land (see Joel 1:4). Some think the names are not intended to designate different type of locusts, but, rather, designate stages of their growth, like “infant,” “toddler,” and “adolescent,” in the human species.

Joe 2:26  And you shall eat in plenty, and shall be filled and you shall praise the name of the Lord your God; who hath done wonders with you, and my people shall not be confounded for ever.

Joel never tells us explicitly why the people need to repent, but the punishments (drought, locust, invasion) suggest he had in mind the covenant curses of Deuteronomy, and, consequently, the warning against letting their God given prosperity go to their heads, thus causing the punishment. In Deut 8:10-14 the people were warned not to forget God and his commands in their abundance and prosperity: And thou shalt eat and be full, and thou shalt bless the LORD, thy God for the good land which he hath given thee. Beware lest thou forget the LORD, thy God, in not keeping his commandments, and his ordinances, and his statutes, which I command thee this day: lest, when thou hast eaten and art full, and hast built goodly houses, and dwelt therein; and when thy herds and thy flocks multiply, and thy silver and thy gold is multiplied, and all that thou hast is multiplied; then thy heart be lifted up, and thou forget the LORD, thy God…(see the entire context, Deut 8:1-20). The people will once again eat their fill, having repented and returned to God, praising him for all his goodness, not the least of which is the fulfillment of the promise to the repentant in Deut 30:1-10~Now when all these things shall be come upon thee, the blessing or the curse, which I have set forth before thee, and thou shalt be touched with repentance of thy heart among all the nations, into which the Lord thy God shall have scattered thee, And shalt return to him, and obey his commandments, as I command thee this day, thou and thy children, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul: The Lord thy God will bring back again thy captivity, and will have mercy on thee, and gather thee again out of all the nations, into which he scattered thee before. If thou be driven as far as the poles of heaven, the Lord thy God will fetch thee back from hence, And will take thee to himself, and bring thee into the land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it: and blessing thee, he will make thee more numerous than were thy fathers. The Lord thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed: that thou mayst love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul, that thou mayst live. And he will turn all these curses upon thy enemies, and upon them that hate and persecute thee. But thou shalt return, and hear the voice of the Lord thy God, and shalt do all the commandments which I command thee this day: And the Lord thy God will make thee abound in all the works of thy hands, in the fruit of thy womb, and in the fruit of thy cattle, in the fruitfulness of thy land, and in the plenty of all things. For the Lord will return to rejoice over thee in all good things, as he rejoiced in thy fathers: Yet so if thou hear the voice of the Lord thy God, and keep his precepts and ceremonies, which are written in this law: and return to the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul (see the entire chapter).

Joe 2:27  And you shall know that I am in the midst of Israel: and I am the Lord your God, and there is none besides: and my people shall not be confounded forever.

See Joel 4:17 [NAB 3:17]. No more shall the nations ask: “Where is their God?”. No more will the heritage of Israel be a reproach (see Joel 2:17). The drunken stupor of the people (Joel 1:5) has come to an end, no longer will they be confounded.

Posted in Bible, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, liturgy, Notes On Joel, Notes on the Lectionary, Quotes, Scripture | Tagged: , , , , | 1 Comment »

This Weeks Posts: Sunday, March 6-Saturday, March 13

Posted by Dim Bulb on March 12, 2011

Some posts are scheduled in advance and will not become available until the time indicated. Posts (or links) lacking time indicators are available regardless of when scheduled (the daily readings, for example). The list of available posts under any given day may be updated with new posts in the late afternoon or evening; these will be marked UPDATE.

SUNDAY, MARCH 6
NINTH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Last Weeks Posts.

Resources for Sunday Mass, March 6 (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms). A weekly feature of this blog. Resources for next Sunday’s Mass, March 14, will be posted on Wednesday.

How We Should Serve God on the Lord’s Day. A meditation based upon an excerpt from St Thomas Aquinas’ famous series of homilies on the Ten Commandments. St Thomas delivered these homilies to lay people so a Ph.D. is not required to understand them.

A Sermon in Preparation for Ash Wednesday.
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MONDAY, MARCH 7
MEMORIAL OF SAINTS PERPETUA AND FELICITY, MARTYRS

Readings.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 12:1-12). 12:05 AM EST.

St Augustine on Today’s Psalm (112). 12:10 AM EST.

Pope Benedict XVI on Today’s Psalm. 12:15 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Meditation for the Monday Before Lent.

Part 3: My Notes on the Passion According to John (18:10-12).

Fathers Nolan and Brown on the Passion According to John (18:1-12).

Some Background on Saints Perpetual and Felicity.

Catholic Encyclopedia on Saints Perpetua and Felicity.
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TUESDAY, MARCH 8
NINTH WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Readings.

St Augustine on Today’s Psalm (112).

Pope Benedict XVI on Today’s Psalm.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 12:13-17). 12:05 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Meditation for Shrove Tuesday. 12:10 AM EST.
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WEDNESDAY, MARCH 9
ASH WEDNESDAY

Readings.

An Ash Wednesday Meditation. I posted this in 2009.

Note: the following three links to notes of mine on Joel 2:12-18 contain overlapping material, but each also contains “stuff” not found in the others.

Some Rambling Thoughts on Joel 2:12-18. I posted this in 2008.

My Notes on Joel 2:12-18. I wrote and posted this about 3 weeks ago in anticipation of the day.

Some More Notes of Mine on Joel 2:12-18. PDF document. Also written last month. This was prepared as a rough draft for a podcast I had hoped to record; unfortunately, I was unable to find the time to edit or record the text.

My Notes on Matt 6:1-6, 16-18 for Ash Wednesday. Contains a brief introduction on how the Gospel is structured, then presents the structure of the Sermon on the Mount, then the commentary follows.

UPDATE: St Thomas Aquinas: An Ash Wednesday Meditation.

UPDATE: Cornelius a Lapide on 2 Cor 5:20-6:2.

UPDATE: Bernardin de Piconio on 2 Cor 5:20-6:2.

Resources for Sunday Mass. Delayed. Will post Tomorrow morning (Thursday).
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THURSDAY, MARCH 10
THURSDAY AFTER ASH WEDNESDAY

Readings.

Some Church Documents Relating to Today’s First Reading (Deut 30:15-20). 12:05 AM EST.

My Notes on Today’s Psalm (1).

St Thomas Aquinas on Today’s Psalm (1). English and Latin side by side.

A Patristic/Medieval Commentary on Today’s Psalm (1). Compiled from Church Fathers and Medieval writers.

Father Patrick Boylan on Today’s Psalm (1).

A Lectio Divina Commentary on Today’s Psalm (1).

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Luke 9:22-25).

Meditation for the Thursday After Ash Wednesday by St Thomas Aquinas. 12:10 AM EST.

Mass Resources for the First Sunday of Lent (Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms). 12:15 AM EST.
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FRIDAY, MARCH 11
FRIDAY AFTER ASH WEDNESDAY

Readings.

My Notes on Today’s First Reading (Isaiah 58:1-9a).

Bishop MacEvily on Today’s Gospel (Matt 9:14-15). 12:00 AM EST.

Maldonado on Today’s Gospel (Matt 9:14-15). 12:02 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Matt 9:14-15). 12:05 AM EST.

Cornelius a Lapide on Today’s Gospel (Matt 9:14-15). 12:10 AM EST.

Meditation on the Crown of Thorns by St Thomas Aquinas. 12:15 AM EST.
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SATURDAY, MARCH 12
SATURDAY AFTER ASH WEDNESDAY

Readings.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Luke 5:27-32). 12:05 AM EST.

Pope John Paul II on Today’s Psalm (86). 12:10 AM EST.

 

Posted in BENEDICT XVI CATECHESIS, Bible, Catechetical Resources, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, fathers of the church, John Paul II Catechesis, Latin Mass Notes, liturgy, Meditations, Notes On Joel, Notes on Luke's Gospel, Notes on Mark, Notes on the Gospel of Matthew, Notes on the Lectionary, NOTES ON THE PSALMS, Quotes, Scripture, SERMONS, St Thomas Aquinas | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

Background and Notes On Joel 2:12-18 For Ash Wednesday (includes note on verse 19)

Posted by Dim Bulb on February 13, 2010

Most Scripture links are to the RSV Anglicized Version. On occasion, the chapter and verse numbering in the RSV differs from that of the NAB, where this occurs, I also include a link to the NAB.  To see my notes on Matthew 6:-6, 16-18 for Ash Wednesday click here.

Background:

A. Authorship, Date, Place of Composition~

1.  All that we know of Joel for certain is what we are told in the superscription (Joel 1:1), which is paltry indeed: his name was Joel, and his Father was Pethuel.  The content of the book has led to the supposition that he was either a cultic prophet or a priest, due to his “familiarity with the Jewish liturgy (Joel 1:13-14; Joel 2:15-17), and devotion to the sancturary (Joel 1:8-9; Joel 2:27; Joel 4:16-17)”~Jerome Biblical Commentary 25:2.

It should be noted that there is nothing in the book to lead us to believe that Joel authored it himself, though this is possible.  It is also possible that he had a scribe write down the prophecies (see Jeremiah 36), or, that the work exists like our Gospels: an inspired disciple was moved to record the teaching of the prophet.

2.  Unlike most of the other works of the writing prophets Joel’s superscription (Joel 1:1) lacks any indication of when his ministry took place.  This fact has caused a number of “guesses” to be made concerning this issue.  Essentially, there are four major theories: (1) 9th century BC, probably during the reign of Joash.  (2) During the last 5 decades of the Kingdom of Judah (David) which fell to Babylon in 587 BC.  (3) circa 520-500 BC, during or after the return from Babylonian Exile.  (4) During the Persian period, after the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah, sometime between 530 and 350 BC.  Most scholars today choose number four as the most likely time period and narrow time the date to circa 400.

3.  The content of the book indicates that the work, or at least the prophet’s ministry, was conducted in Judah, and especially its capital of Jerusalem.

B.  The Context Of Joel 2:12-18~

For about a century and a half the unity of the Book of Joel has been questioned, with some postulating that chapters 1 & 2 were written by a hand different from that which produced chapters 3 & 4.  Other scholars maintain that the work is a unity, noting literary connection between the allegedly disparate parts (compare Joel 1:15 and Joel 2:1 with Joel 3:4 and Joel 4:14; also Joel 2:27 with Joel 4:17).  I find the reasons for a single author  more plausible (see the Joel commentaries in the Jerome Biblical Commentary and The New Catholic Commentary On Holy Scripture).

Most scholars divide Joel into two major sections, with the first corresponding to chapters 1 and 2, and the second with chapters 3 and 4.  (But see Volume 1 of Marvin Sweeney’s The Twelve Prophets for a different structure).  With Sweeney I think that the dividing point between the two major sections is at Joel 2:18.

C. Division of Joel 1:2-18. The first major part of Joel is chapter Joel 1:2-2:18.  Chapter 1 is divided thus:

A plague of locusts has descended upon the nation, the likes of which had not been seen before (Joel 1:2-4).  This leads to a call for liturgical lamentation to be done by drunkards (Joel 1:5-7); by the people in general Joel 1:8-10); by farmers and husbandmen (Joel 1:11-12); and priests (Joel 1:13) who are to gather together the people for the liturgy (Joel 1:14).

This is followed by a cry of alarm (Joel 1:15), and reasons for the alarm (Joel 1:16-20).

Chapter 2 opens with a statement of the threat posed (Joel 2:1-11).  Inasmuch as chapter 1 has spoken of the threat as an existing reality we should perhaps see these verses as a threat of something to come, a worse locust plague or, more likely in my opinion, an army of men who would, like the locusts, destroy the land to such an extent that the former destructive invasions of Assyria and Babylon would look of little account.  This is the army of Israel’s God, who, because of their infidelity, now uses a foreign army as his instrument of punishment (an idea not foreign to the Bible, see Isaiah 10:5-11)

Locusts were one of the punishments God said he would bring against Israel if they fell away from the covenant and its demands (Deuteronomy 28:38), and, apparently, if this didn’t check them an army of invaders would be sent (Deut 28:49-57).  It is not then hard to see that a locust plague and an invading army could be closely associated in their effects (see Judges 6:5, Judges 7:12; Jer 46:23; Nahum 3:15-17).  Indeed, as Theodoret notes, “If one carefully considers the head of a locust, he will find it very much like that of a horse.”  In fact, the Italian word for locust (cavaletta) means “little horse;” and the German word (heupferd) means “hay horse.”  The comparison of locust to war horses is not unknown in the Bible (Job 39:19-20).

The people have sinned against the covenant and punishment has come (Joel 1), but an even greater threat looms (Joel 2:1-11), thus the call to repentance which forms the heart of our first reading for Ash Wednesday (Joel 2:12-17, with 18 capping off the passage and providing a transition to the second major part, Joel 2:19-3:21, [NAB 2:19-4:21]).

NOTES ON JOEL 2:12-18

Joe 2:12  Yet even now, the Lord says, turn to me with your whole heart, and with fasting, and with weeping, and with mourning .

Yet even nowI.e., In spite of what you have done.  Before things get worse and you force my hand to greater punishment.  The situation is dire but not hopeless.  St Jerome put it: “all this I have therefore spoken, in order to terrify you by My threats.  Wherefore turn unto me with all your hearts, and show the penitence of your minds, by fasting and weeping and mourning, that, fasting now, your man be filled hereafter;  weeping now, you may laugh hereafter; mourning now, you may hereafter be comforted” (St Jerome, Commentary on Joel 2:12.  The rest of the quotation can be found below, at verse 13.  Note that the Saint is quoting from Luke 6:20-26, which formed part of the Gospel reading for last Sunday.  Before Lent we were still preparing for Lent!  there is nothing arbitrary about the lectionary)

Even now, he says, witnessing at one and the same time to his might and his mercy, for the One strong enough to bring calamity upon sinners is also the One to offer His mercy which, as it were, holds precedent over His judicial might to punish,  As Hugo of St victor states: “The strict Judge cannot be overcome, for He is Wisdom; cannot be corrupted, for He is Justice; cannot be sustained, for He is Eternal; cannot be avoided, for He is everywhere.  Yet He can be entreated, because He is Mercy; He can be appeased, because He is Goodness; He can cleanse, because He is the Fountain of grace; He can satisfy, because He is the Bread of Life; He can soothe. because He is the Unction from above; he can beautify, because he is Fullness; He can beatify, because He is Bliss.  Turned from Him, then, and fearing His Justice, turn ye to Him, and flee to His Mercy.  Flee from Himself to Himself, from the rigor of Justice to the Bosom of Mercy.  The Lord Who is to be feared saith it.  He who is Truth enjoins what is just, profitable, good, turn you to Me, &c

Turn to me with your whole heart.  A common formulation in the so called Deuteronomist theology (see Deut 30:10; 1 Sam 7:3; 1 Kings 8:48; 2 Kings 24:25).  The call to return to God was picked up by the Prophets for whom the Deuteronomist theology was key (see Hosea 3:5; 14:2; Amos 4:6-11).

Turn to Me , He saith, With all your heart, with your whole mind, whole soul, whole spirit, whole affections (see Deut 6:5).  For I am the Creator and Lord of the heart and mind, and therefore will, that the whole of your being be given, yea, given back to Me, and endure not any part of it to be secretly stolen from Me to be given to idols, lusts or appetites ” (Cornelius a Lapide, S.J.).

Fasting, weeping, mourning. Recalls the exhortation to priests to weep and wail (mourn) and call the people to fast in Joel 1:12-13.

With fasting, which is necessary for the humbling of the heart, for our tendency to pamper the flesh is likely to inflate the heart with pride and make insensible to us its condition, and forgetful of God, as Moses had predicted concerning the Jews, who ate their fill…grew fat and frsiky and spurned the God who made them, scorning the Rock of their salvation” (Deut 32:15).

Weeping…mourning.  Obvious signs of remorse.  The root word of mourning denotes the idea of striking oneself,, hence the traditional practice of striking the breast during the meas culpa.  “We ought to turn in fasting, whereby vices are repressed, and the mind is raised.  We ought to turn in weeping, out of longing for our home (heaven), out of displeasure at our faults, out of love for the sufferings of Christ, and for the manifold transgressions and errors of the world” (St Dionysius).

Joe 2:13  And rend your hearts, and not your garments and turn to the Lord your God: for he is gracious and merciful, patient and rich in mercy, and ready to repent of the evil.

Outward manifestations  of  repentance (rent garment) are quite meaningless if not accompanied by inner reality (rent heart).  Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites; because you are like to whited sepulchres, which outwardly appear to men beautiful but within are full of dead men’s bones and of all filthiness.  So you also outwardly indeed appear to men just: but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity Matt 23:27-28).  Of course Ash Wedensday’s Gospel reading has the avoidance of hypocrisy as a major theme.

Turn to the Lord your God.  Were drunkards relying on their wine (Joel 1:5-7)?  Were the people relying on their outward rituals (Joel 1:8-10)?  Were the farmers and husbandmen relying on their produce (Joel 1:1-12)?   Were the priests more concerned with what they earned than why the earned it (Joel 1:13)?  Is my heart divided?  Is yours?  “Return, O faithless sons, I will heal your faithlessness.” “Behold, we come to thee; for thou art the LORD our God.  Truly the hills are a delusion, the orgies on the mountains. Truly in the LORD our God is the salvation of Israel.  But from our youth the shameful thing has devoured all for which our fathers labored, their flocks and their herds, their sons and their daughters.  Let us lie down in our shame, and let our dishonor cover us; for we have sinned against the LORD our God, we and our fathers, from our youth even to this day; and we have not obeyed the voice of the LORD our God.”  “If you return, O Israel, says the LORD, to me you should return. If you remove your abominations from my presence, and do not waver, and if you swear, `As the LORD lives,’ in truth, in justice, and in uprightness, then nations shall bless themselves in him, and in him shall they glory” (Jer 3:22-4:2).

for he is gracious and merciful, patient and rich in mercy, and ready to repent of the evil.  An allusion back to one of the foundational texts in all of Scripture, Exodus 34:6-7.  That text spoke about God as one who both punishes and has mercy.  Here, the emphasis is solely on God’s mercy, presumably because the people have already suffered punishment (chapter 1), and are being invited to penance (self imposed punishment) in order to avoid further God imposed punishment.  The request for penance is far less demanding on the people than an invading army would be.  In fact, we see that there is a balance between God’s mercy and his justice.

God is Gracious. The Hebrew חנּוּן (channûn) implies a bending down from a higher position and as used to describe a superior who shows concern to an inferior.  As far as I can tell, this word is used only of God in the OT.

Merciful. רחוּם rachûm is derived from the word “womb” and implies an attitude of intense love and feeling motivated by someone elses pain (to show compassion).  Again, the word is always used of God in the OT.

Patient.  Literally “long on anger,” but this is a case where a literal translation can be misleading due to the English sense of the phrase, for it could imply long lasting anger.  But the Hebrew sense is “He keeps his anger at a distance from the one deserving it.”

Rich in mercy.  The Hebrew phrase is רבחסד (rab chesed) .  The word chesed is synonymous with the word for “merciful” used above.  The word expresses a tender love, such as that between spouses:

It is significant that in their preaching the prophets link mercy, which they often refer to because of the people’s sins, with the incisive image of love on God’s part. The Lord loves Israel with the love of a special choosing, much like the love of a spouse,37 and for this reason He pardons its sins and even its infidelities and betrayals. When He finds repentance and true conversion, He brings His people back to grace.38 In the preaching of the prophets, mercy signifies a special power of love, which prevails over the sin and infidelity of the chosen people.

In this broad “social” context, mercy appears as a correlative to the interior experience of individuals languishing in a state of guilt or enduring every kind of suffering and misfortune. Both physical evil and moral evil, namely sin, cause the sons and daughters of Israel to turn to the Lord and beseech His mercy. In this way David turns to Him, conscious of the seriousness of his guilt39; Job too, after his rebellion, turns to Him in his tremendous misfortune40; so also does Esther, knowing the mortal threat to her own people.41 And we find still other examples in the books of the Old Testament.42

At the root of this many-sided conviction, which is both communal and personal, and which is demonstrated by the whole of the Old Testament down the centuries, is the basic experience of the chosen people at the Exodus: the Lord saw the affliction of His people reduced to slavery, heard their cry, knew their sufferings and decided to deliver them.43 In this act of salvation by the Lord, the prophet perceived his love and compassion.44 This is precisely the grounds upon which the people and each of its members based their certainty of the mercy of God, which can be invoked whenever tragedy strikes. (Pope John Paul II).

Ready to repent. Relent of the punishment threatened or enacted.  “The evil which He foretells, and at last inflicts, is (so to speak) against His Will, Who wills not that any should perish, and, therefore, on the first tokens of repentance He repents of the evil (i.e., punishment) and does it not” (E.B. Pusey, Anglican scholar).  See Jonah 4:2.

Joe 2:14  Who knoweth but he will return, and forgive, and leave a blessing behind him, sacrifice and libation to the Lord your God?

Who knoweth but he will return. The same word used in the previous two verses in reference to the people’s return.  “God had promised forgiveness of sins and of eternal punishment to those who turn to Him with their whole heart.  Of this, then, there could be no doubt.  But He has not promised individuals or the Church that he will remit the temporal punishment which He had threatened.  He forgave David the sin.  Nathan says, The Lord also has put away your sin .  But he said at the same time, the sword shall never depart from your house; and the temporal punishment of his sin pursued him even on the bed of death.  David thought that the temporal punishment of his sin, in the death of his child, might be remitted to him.  He used the same form of words as Joel, I said, who can tell whether God will be gracious unto me, that the child may live? But the child died.  The king of Nineveh used the like words, Who can tell if God will return and repent and turn away from His fierce anger, that we perish not? And he was heard.  God retained or remitted the temporal punishment as He saw good for each” (E.B. Pusey, Anglican scholar).  For more on temporal punishment of sin and its relation to indulgences-which Pusey would have denied-see here.

Return and forgive.  The same word is used in reference to sinners in the two previous verses.  Obviously, the people could not initiate the return themselves, since the offended party in the covenant relation they broke is God, but this is precisely where God’s active love (vs 13) kicks in.

“The juridical commitment on God’s part ceased to oblige whenever Israel broke the covenant and did not respect its conditions. But precisely at this point, hesed, in ceasing to be a juridical obligation, revealed its deeper aspect: it showed itself as what it was at the beginning, that is, as love that gives, love more powerful than betrayal, grace stronger than sin.

“This fidelity vis-a-vis the unfaithful “daughter of my people”(cf. Lam. 4:3, 6) is, in brief, on God’s part, fidelity to Himself. This becomes obvious in the frequent recurrence together of the two terms hesed we’e met (= grace and fidelity), which could be considered a case of hendiadys (cf. e.g. Exodus 34:6; 2 Sam 2:6; 2 Sam 15:20; Ps 25:10; Ps 40:11-12; Ps 85:11; Ps 138::2; Micah 7:20). “It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for the sake of my holy name” (Ezek 36:22). Therefore Israel, although burdened with guilt for having broken the covenant, cannot lay claim to God’s hesed on the basis of (legal) justice; yet it can and must go on hoping and trusting to obtain it, since the God of the covenant is really “responsible for his love.” The fruits of this love are forgiveness and restoration to grace, the reestablishment of the interior covenant (Pope John Paull II).

and leave a blessing behind him, sacrifice and libation to the Lord your God?  Thus reversing the effects of the plague in chapter 1.

Joe 2:15  Blow the trumpet in Sion, sanctify a fast, call a solemn assembly,
Joe 2:16  Gather together the people, sanctify the church, assemble the ancients, gather together the little ones, and them that suck at the breasts: let the bridegroom go forth from his bed, and the bride out of her bridal chamber.

The trumpet (literally, ram’s horn) was used to sound a battle alarm (Hos 8:1; Judges 3:27; 6:34), but was also used to announce cultic assemblies at the Temple (Lev 25:9; Ps 98:6; Ps 150:3).  The military image was used in Jl 2:1 in reference to the threatened invasion by God’s “army” (Joel 2:11).  The only way for the people to avoid this is to reconcile with their God with a cultic lamentation.

Sanctify a fast, call a solemn assembly.  Gather and dedicate yourselves to a cultic, communal fast (Ezra 8:21), without hypocrisy (Isa 58:1-7).  The Hebrew for solemn assembly is derived from the root עצר (‛âtsar), which has the sense of “to stop.”  Because it is solemn it is special and calls for the truncation or surrender of normal activity.

Gather together the people &c.  The threat facing the people is quite dire,  as the reference to infants and brides and bridegrooms taking part indicates.  Newly married men were exempt from military service (Deut 20:7; Deut 24:5), but when you have made God your enemy (Joel 2:1-11) you had better go to war with yourself via penance, or suffer the consequences.

Joe 2:17  Between the porch and the altar the priests, the Lord’s ministers, shall weep, and shall say: Spare, O Lord, spare thy people: and give not thy inheritance to reproach, that the heathens should rule over them. Why should they say among the nations: Where is their God?

Between the porch and the altar.  An open area in front of the Temple where sacrifices were made (1 Kings 6:3, 1 Kings 8:64).  “The priests would address their prayers towards the sanctuary, i.e., Westwards, in contrast to the idolaters of Ezek 8:16 who stood in the same place but faced East.  The prayer of the priests is a collective lamentation, cf Ps 79″ (New Catholic Commentary On Holy Scripture, 552g).  The prayer recalls the threat of Deut 28:49-57.

That the heathen should rule over them This is one of the reasons why I see the threat in Joel 2:1-11 as not being another locust plague but an army.  St Jerome saw the plague in chapter 1 as a mystery of something to come, namely an army: “The enigma which was closed is now opened.  For who that people is, manifold and strong, described above under the name of the palmerworm, the locust, the canker-worm and the caterpillar, is now explained more clearly, lest the heathen rule over them.  For the heritage of the Lord is given to reproach, when they serve their enemies, and the nations say, Where is their God, Whom they boasted to be their Sovereign and their Protector?”

Joe 2:18  Then was the LORD jealous for his land, and had pity on his people.

This verse is transitional, capping off, as it were, the preceding verses and preparing for what follows.  Jealous means burning zeal, and is related to several words used in verse 13 (gracious, rich in mercy, both implying familial love).  Pity is the Hebrew word chamal, which means softness.  God’s love and His openness to the repentant belies his seemingly hard edges.

The second major part of Joel opens with Joel 2:18 and basically describes God’s response to Israel and the nations in light of what they have suffered (chapter 1), and avoided (Joel 2:1-11), by repentance (Joel 2:12-17).  The produce of the land will once again be plentiful (Joel 2:19a, 21-26), and the reproach of nations will become a thing of the past (Joel 2:19b-20, 26b-27).  Sometime after this more blessings will come (Joel 2:28-29, [3:1-3 in NAB]).  These blessings will be poured out on all mankind, not just Israel (Joel 2:30-32, [3:4-5 in NAB], see Acts 2:39.  Also Rom 10:12-13:2 which ends with an appeal to Joel 2:32a, 3:5a in NAB).  The salvation of the nations is also a time of judgment (Joel 3, chapter 4 NAB, ) for what the nations had done to Israel.

Joe 2:19  And the Lord answered, and said to his people: Behold I will send you corn, and wine, and oil, and you shall be filled with them: and I will no more make you a reproach among the nations.

I will send you corn, wine, and oil, and you shall be filled with them. Reversing the situation which had befallen them as a result of their sins (see Joel 1:5-12, and 1:15-17). The lack of grain, wine and oil, were the result of a locust plague (Joel 1:4), a punishment Moses told the people would befall them if they broke the covenant (Deut 28:38-40).

I will no more make you a reproach among the nations. Punishment for covenant infidelity included the rising up of enemies, military invasion, siege (Deut 28:49-57), and exile (Deut 28:63-68). This punishment had not yet fallen upon Joel’s audience, and he was preaching repentance to ensure that it didn’t (see Joel 2:17).

Posted in Bible, Catechetical Resources, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, fathers of the church, John Paul II Catechesis, liturgy, Notes On Joel, Notes on the Lectionary, Quotes | Tagged: , , , , , | 4 Comments »

 
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