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Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Titus 1:1-8, 11-14

Posted by Dim Bulb on November 8, 2014

This post opens with Fr. MacEvilly’s brief analysis of Titus 1 and is followed by his comments on today’s reading (Tit 1:1-8, 11-14). Text in purple represents his paraphrase of the scripture he is commenting on.

Tit 1:1 Paul, a servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of the elect of God and the acknowledging of the truth, which is according to godliness:

Paul, a servant of God, that is to say, an Apostle of Jesus Christ, sent for the purpose of announcing to the elect of God, the true faith whereby they may be brought to the knowledge of that saving doctrine which promotes the true worship of God.

“A servant of God.” This is a most honourable title, since “to serve God is to reign.” The following words, “and an Apostle,” &c., clearly express the servitude to which he refers, that special engagement in his service, in quality of Apostle. “According to the faith,” &c. The Greek word for “according,” κατὰ (kata), shows that the object of his Apostleship was to announce to the elect, the faith, which is expressed in other words. “The acknowledging of the truth,” which truth is “according to godliness,” i.e., promotes the true worship of God. Wherefore, it excels philosophy, which only regards natural truths, but no way promotes the worship of God.

Tit 1:2 Unto the hope of life everlasting, which God, who lieth not, hath promised before the times of the world:

Which imparts to us the hope of eternal life promised or decreed from eternity, to be given us by God, the unerring, unchangeable truth.

This piety or godliness has annexed to it the hope of eternal life, unlike the law of Moses, which held out only temporal hopes, “a land flowing with milk and honey.” “Hath promised,” i.e., decreed. This decree is as certain in its actual execution, as would be the fulfilment of a promise on the part of one who would certainly accomplish it. On this account, this decree is called, a promise. “Before the times of the world,” i.e., before all ages, all time; hence, in SS. Scripture, it is used to denote, eternity.—2 Tim. 1:9.

Tit 1:3 But hath in due times manifested his word in preaching, which is committed to me according to the commandment of God our Saviour:

But this decree or promise of his, though hidden from eternity, God has made known at the period destined by him, through the ministry of preaching, which had been confided and entrusted to me by the delegation of God, our Saviour.

“His word” refers to the promise of decree (verse 2). In Greek it means, “his own word,” τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ (tou logou autou), and the article prefixed to “word,” shows that it refers to the preceding. The manifestation of his promise on the part of God challenges our eternal love and gratitude. This exordium is rather long, but it is an abstract of the entire Epistle and of all the duties of a pastor of souls, who should preach the word, and by this spiritual seed, beget faith (verse 1) hope (verse 2), charity (verse 3), in the souls of his people.

Tit 1:4 To Titus, my beloved son according to the common faith, grace and peace, from God the Father and from Christ Jesus our Saviour.

(Writes) to Titus, his genuine son, begotten by him spiritually, by imparting to him the faith common to both; grace and peace be to thee, from God the Father, and from Christ Jesus our Saviour.

“My beloved (in Greek, γνησιω = gnesio, genuine, true) son.” He shows how he is his son, in having spiritually begotten him by imparting to him the faith common to them both. “Grace and peace.” The present Greek copies add, mercy, but it is not found in the best manuscripts, nor in the Greek version of St. Chrysostom, nor in the ancient Greek or Latin Fathers. Hence, it was probably inserted from the Epistles of Timothy.

Tit 1:5 For this cause I left thee in Crete: that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting and shouldest ordain priests in every city, as I also appointed thee:

My object in leaving thee in Crete, and giving thee charge over the entire island, was, that thou shouldst correct the things that remained to be corrected, and appoint pastors over each city, according to the rules which I had prescribed for thee.

He now enters on the subject of the Epistle. “For this cause I left thee at Crete,” making him chief Bishop, with jurisdiction over the entire island. “That thou shouldst set in order the things that are wanting.” In Greek, ἵνα τὰ λείποντα ἐπιδιορθώση (hina ta leiponta epidiorthose), that thou shouldst rectify the things which remained, which were left to be rectified by the Apostle, for want of time to tarry there. The Apostles laid the foundations of the different Churches; the superstructure, in many cases, was to be reared by their disciples. “And appoint priests in every city.” That under the word “priests” are included bishops, is clear from verse 7. The word “bishop,” according to Apostolic and Ecclesiastical usage, refers to the first order of the clergy only, superior to the others, who are merely priests, both in point of orders and jurisdiction; while the word “presbyteri,” or “priests,” comprises the clergy as well of the first, as of the second, order. It is likely, the word here extends to both, and that Titus was instructed to appoint pastors over each of the hundred cities of Crete (hence called “HECATOMPOLIS”), priests over some, and bishops over others, according to their relative importance and the wants of the faithful. This commission given to Titus, shows, that from the very infancy of the Church, certain bishops in some localities enjoyed Primatial and Archiepiscopal jurisdiction over others. St. Jerome confines the meaning of “priests” to bishops only, who were to be appointed over the principal cities of the very populous island of Crete. It is an article of Catholic faith that bishops, who are the successors of the Apostles, are superior to priests.—(Council of Trent, SS. 23, cap. 4, canon 7.) Though not of faith, it is universally believed, that this superiority is of divine institution. In his commentary on this passage, and in his Epistle to Evagrius, St. Jerome would appear to hold, that this superiority was the result of Ecclesiastical usage or arrangement. All, however, that would follow, at most, from his words is, that the bishops, in course of time, vindicated the superiority which they had over the priests; and that, in order to put a stop to the insolent encroachments of some priests, the functions of the bishops came to be exercised more distinctly than before, when they governed the Church “with common counsel.” And in his Commentary on this passage, he employs a rhetorical hyperbole, when referring to the dignity of priests, in consequence of the tyrranical domination of some bishops over the priests; among other instances, John of Jerusalem treated St. Jerome himself and his followers with excessive severity. (See his Epistles, 60, 61, 62). In the Epistle to Evagrius, already referred to, St. Jerome asserts for the bishop alone the power of conferring orders.

Tit 1:6 If any be without crime, the husband of one wife. having faithful children, not accused of riot or unruly.

The qualifications necessary for the persons entrusted with pastoral charge are, to be irreprehensible, only once married; as regards their children also, to be free from reproach, by having them brought up in the Christian faith, and of such temperate, sober habits, as not to be chargeable with luxurious excesses of any kind—obedient to their parents.

“Without crime.” The Greek word, ἁνεγκλήτος (anenkletos), means, irreproachable, not liable to be accused of serious crimes, and even irreproachable in his children whose vices might reflect discredit on their parents, who could not freely exercise the right of correction towards others, if their own household were disorderly. “Not accused of riot,” i.e., their children should not be chargeable with luxury either in the violation of temperance or chastity.

Tit 1:7 For a bishop must be without crime, as the steward of God: not proud, not subject to anger, nor given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre:

For, a bishop should be a man of blameless life, as becomes a steward, a dispenser of the treasures of God’s household, he should be exempt from the vices of arrogance, anger, intemperance, violence, and base avarice;

“For a bishop must be without crime.” This shows, that in the word, “priests,” verse 5, are included “bishops,” which latter word is common v confined to the clergy of the first order alone. “Without crime,” as in verse 6—(See also 1 Tim. chap. 3 verse 2). A bishop should be exempt from the vices here enumerated, so unbecoming his state; “not given to wine;” intemperance is opposed to chastity. I shall never believe a drunkard to be chaste.—St. Jerome. “Not proud,” i.e., not arrogantly adhering to his own opinion, which is the meaning of the Greek word, αυθαδη(authade). No men inflict so much injury on the Church, or stand so much in the way of the salvation of souls, as those placed in high authority, when, from a spirit of pride, here condemned by the Apostle, they pertinaciously adhere to and carry out their own opinions, reckless of consequences, here and hereafter. The government of the pastors of the Church should not, in the remotest degree, savour of arrogance or domination. “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them, … not so you.”—(Luke. 22:25).

Tit 1:8 But given to hospitality, gentle, sober, just, holy, continent:

Adorned with the virtues of hospitality, benignity, or love for good men, sobriety in regard to himself, justice towards all men, sanctity and holiness in regard to God, continence.

“But given to hospitality,” (see 1 Tim. 3) “gentle.” The Greek, φιλαγαθον (philagathon), means a friend or lover of good men. “Sober,” σωφρονα (sophrona), is rendered by some, prudent, by others, and among them, St. Jerome, chaste. “Continent,” particularly refers to one who restrains the indulgence of all carnal lusts and passions.

Tit 1:11 Who must be reproved, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre’s sake.

Who must be silenced by arguments; who pervert entire families by their errors, teaching false and erroneous doctrines, from the base motives of filthy lucre.

“Who must be reproved.” The Greek word, επιστομιζειν (epistomizein), means, to close their mouths, of course, by argument. Our version expresses the meaning of the word; hence, they should be treated with great severity, to serve as a caution to others whom they might seduce.

Tit 1:12 One of them a prophet of their own, said: The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, slothful bellies.

One of the Cretans themselves, well acquainted with them, one whose testimony they cannot question, for he was regarded as their own prophet, said of them, “the Cretans are always liars, evil beasts,” ever ready to injure, “slothful bellies,” ever addicted to sloth and gluttony.

“A prophet of their own.” He refers to the poet, Epimenides, who is called “a prophet of their own,” because the Cretans regarded him as a prophet, and he also treated of oracles, and professed an acquaintance with secret things. “The Cretans are always liars,” &c. These words are expressed by Epimenides in a single line of Greek hexameter verse. In them, the Cretans were charged with three vices for which they were notorious—viz., falsehood, ferocity, and sensuality. They were proverbial for their lying.

Tit 1:13 This testimony is true. Wherefore, rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith:

This testimony (of the poet Epimenides regarding the Cretans) is true. Wherefore, admonish them severely, and rebuke them sharply for these vices, and see that they preserve intact the integrity of sound faith.

This testimony of the poet Epimenides, though before of human authority, is affirmed by the Apostle to be true; and so, now, has the weight of divine authority, and entitled to the firm assent of faith. The same is to be seen (1 Cor. 15:33), where the words of the poet Menander, before only conveying a natural truth, become, in consequence of being quoted by St. Paul, a portion of divine faith.

“Wherefore,” as such are their dispositions, they must be rebuked with sharpness and severity. The Greek word for “sharply,” ἀποτόμως (apotomos), contains an allusion to the operations of surgeons cutting off putrescent flesh. Of course this is not opposed to his command to Timothy (2 chap. 3), where a bishop is told to be mild in his rebuke; because, he there only prescribes the disposition to lenity, while in reality, severity must sometimes be exercised, with which he himself menaces the Corinthians.—(1 Epistle 4) “Quid vultis, in virga veniam?”

Tit 1:14 Not giving heed to Jewish fables and commandments of men who turn themselves away from the truth.

Not giving heed to Jewish fables and purely human traditions of men, who turn away from, and hate, the truth of the gospel.

“The commandments of men.” By these are understood the false Jewish traditions, to an instance of which there is an allusion made, verse 15. In this, of course, there is nothing said derogatory to the precepts of fasting and abstinence, or of observing holidays, or the other ordinances of the Catholic Church. As well might you reject all civil laws, to which we are commanded by the Apostle to be obedient under pain of damnation (Rom. 13), and of the Church it is said, “he who hears you, hears me.” The Apostle would, for the same reason, act wrongly in commanding the Gentiles to abstain from blood, &c.—(Acts, 15) St. Paul here refers to false and corrupt commandments of men, “who turn themselves away from the (gospel) truth.”—(See Coloss. 2:22).

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Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Titus 2:11-14, 3:4-7

Posted by Dim Bulb on January 8, 2013

This post includes Fr. MacEvilly’s paraphrasing (in purple text) of the verses he is commenting upon. I’ve also provided his summaries of chapters 2 and 3 to help provide context.

A Summary of Chapter 2~In this chapter, the Apostle, after exhorting Titus to teach sound doctrine, points out to him what instructions he should deliver to persons of different ages and conditions in life (6). He admonishes him to show himself as a model in the practice of every virtue (7-10), He proposes the example of Christ, our Saviour, who appeared visibly in order to instruct all classes of men, both by word and example, as a motive to stimulate him to teach the same, with greater zeal. He shows what it is that Christ has taught us (12, 13). He points out the end and object of Christ’s death (14). He, finally, wishes that Titus should authoritatively teach all these things (15).

Tit 2:11  For the grace of God our Saviour hath appeared to all men:

For the salutary beneficence of God’s redemption has been made manifest to all classes of men without exception.

By “the grace of our Saviour,” or (as in the Greek,  η χαρις  η σωτηριος) the
salutary grace, some understand, as in Paraphrase, the salutary benevolence of God displayed in the work of redemption (see 2 Cor 6:1); others, Christ himself, the fountain of grace, the divine essential grace. This shows that as the benefit of redemption was displayed to all classes, men, women, slaves, &c.; so, Titus should instruct every class, not excepting slaves.

Tit 2:12  Instructing us, that, denying ungodliness and worldly desires, we should live soberly and justly and godly in this world,

Instructing us to renounce impiety, and worldly corrupt desires, and to lead in this world a life of wisdom and temperance in regard to ourselves, of justice and equity towards the neighbor, and of piety and religion towards God.

“Impiety,” i.e., unbelief, “worldly desires,” the corrupt passions of ambition, avarice, lusts, &c.—”we should live soberly, justly, and piously,” by fasting, alms, deeds, and prayer; these good works are specially recommended to all, specially opposed to the three enemies of salvation—the world, the flesh, and the devil; and to the three great leading maxims of the world—”the concupiscence of the flesh, of the eyes, and the pride of life.”—(1 John 2:16).

Tit 2:13  Looking for the blessed hope and coming of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.

Expecting eternal happiness, the object of our hope, and the glorious coming of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ.

“The blessed hope;” “hope” means the thing hoped for, the object of hope.

“The great God.” The article in the Greek shows that by this is meant, our Saviour Jesus Christ. Besides, it is our Saviour alone that “the glorious coming” is attributed in Sacred Scripture. Hence, an argument for the Divinity of Christ.

“The blessed hope,” regards the beautitude of our souls at death—”the coming,” &c., the glorification of our bodies.

Tit 2:14  Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity and might cleanse to himself a people acceptable, a pursuer of good works.

Who has delivered himself up to death for us, to redeem and purify us from all iniquity and from the stains of sin, and after thus cleansing us by his blood, to claim us as his peculiar people, his precious distinguished possession, a people exceedingly zealous for good works.

He not only was born for us, and appeared to us, and instructed us, but he also died for us. “A people acceptable.” St. Jerome has translated it, “an especial, eminent people.” It is allusive to the passage in Exodus 19:5, when God says of the Jews, “you shall be my peculiar possession,” &c. The Hebrew for “peculiar possession,” Segullah, according to St. Jerome, signifies “a most precious treasure.” St. Paul here followed the Septuagint version, which means, “acceptable people,” an excellent possession, &c.

A Summary of Chapter 3~In this chapter, the Apostle inculcates certain duties that were obligatory on the faithful in general, viz., subjection to the existing civil authorities, mildness tozvards all men, not excepting unbelievers. This feeling they will the more readily cultivate even towards unbelievers, by reflecting that they themselves were formerly like them, and also by reflecting that it was solely owing to the mercy of God that they were rescued from their former state. He shows the greatness of this mercy and its admirable results (3-7); and he exhorts Titus to point out this mercy to the faithful (8). He prohibits useless questions, etc., and he instructs him to avoid a heretic, who, after being twice admonished, contumaciously persists in error (10, 11). He invites Titus to come to him, etc.

Tit 3:4  But when the goodness and kindness of God our Saviour appeared:

But when the goodness and singular love for men of God our Saviour shone forth (by the preaching of the Gospel),

Another motive to induce them to act compassionately, &c., is the example of God himself—” The kindness.” The Greek is, φιλανθρωπια, philanthropy. Some refer this to the Incarnation, but erroneously; for, there is question of God the Father, as he is distinguished from Jesus Christ (verse 6).

Tit 3:5  Not by the works of justice which we have done, but according to his mercy, he saved us, by the laver of regeneration and renovation of the Holy Ghost.

Not in consideration of the good works which we performed (for, there were no such works in existence), but out of pure gratuitous mercy, he saved us by baptism, wherein we are regenerated into sons of God and were made new men, through the grace of the Holy Ghost.

It was not in consideration of our just works that he saved us; for, before his
grace there were no good works, or “works of justice,” entitled to a reward; but it was out of his purely gratuitous mercy, he “saved us,” i.e., bestowed on us justification, which places us in the way of finally arriving at perfect eternal salvation, and is itself initial salvation. The means by which he has bestowed on us this justification is through the waters of baptism externally poured on us, and by the grace of the Holy Ghost, which is attached to the rite of baptism, interiorly giving us a new birth, a new spiritual essence, making us sons of God, perfectly renewing us, so that we become invested with the virtues of wisdom, faith, &c., opposed to the former vices to which we were slaves. The external instrumental cause of this renovation is baptism; the efficient invisible cause, which the external operates, is, the grace of the Holy Ghost. This passage manifestly shows that justification does not consist in the mere imputation of the justice of Christ; but that it is the inherent principle of this new life, so long as it perseveres.

Tit 3:6  Whom he hath poured forth upon us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour:

Whom God the Father has copiously and abundantly poured forth on us, through Jesus Christ our Saviour.

“Whom,” i.e., the Holy Ghost, “he hath poured forth upon us,” i.e., God the Father (verse 4) hath poured forth upon us abundantly, “through Jesus Christ our Saviour,” in the sacraments of baptism and confirmation, which, immediately after baptism, was given by the imposition of hands. The entire Trinity is referred to in this verse, distinctly contributing by an operation peculiar to each person to our new spiritual existence. The Eternal Father, the Principle of the Divinity itself, is the Father of the baptized, and the Principle of his divine existence; the Eternal Son is, with the Father, the Principle of the effusion of the Holy Ghost; and the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of the Father and Son, becomes the spirit of the baptized, his heart and soul, his supernatural and divine life.

Tit 3:7  That, being justified by his grace, we may be heirs according to hope of life everlasting.

So that, cleansed from sin and gifted with justice through his grace, we are constituted heirs of eternal life, which we have at present, only in the certain hope of one day obtaining it.

Justification implies the remission of sin and the infusion of justice by sanctifying grace, and this holy state constitutes us the rightful heirs of eternal life, which we do not yet actually possess, but which, like the youthful heir, during his minority, we hope one day to attain, and actually enjoy.

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Father Callan’s Commentary on Titus 2:11-14, 3:4-7

Posted by Dim Bulb on January 8, 2013

To help provide context this post includes Fr. Callan’s summaries of Titus 2:1-15 and Titus 3:1-11.

TITUS’ TEACHING OF VARIOUS CLASSES OF PERSONS

A Summary of Titus 2:1-15~Here St. Paul tells Titus that the best way to correct the unwholesome teachings of the false guides in Crete will be to set before the people the simple positive doctrines of the Gospel as regards all classes, old and young of both sexes; and in doing all this Titus must show himself an example in doctrine and practice, so as to disarm adversaries. Even slaves and servants, by their obedience, honesty, and fidelity, may be an ornament in all respects to the doctrine of their God and Saviour (Titus 2:1-10). These teachings of the Gospel are entirely within the power of all to practise; for we have as helps the grace of God which has been manifested for the salvation of all mankind, and the glorious prospect of seeing hereafter the Saviour who gave Himself for us that He might free us from all sins and perfect us in every good work. Let Titus preach these things with all authority (Titus 2:11-15).

11. For the grace of God appeared bringing salvation to all men;

The Apostle now (ver. 11-14) gives reasons why Christians should observe the precepts he has been enjoining, namely, first, because the grace of God has appeared in the Incarnation of God’s only Son, “bringing salvation to all men” (ver. 11-12), and secondly, because by observing those precepts and living holy lives we prepare ourselves for the glorious coming of our Saviour (ver. 13-14).

The aorist “appeared” indicates the definite appearance of the Saviour at the time of His Incarnation. The adjective here translated “salvation” does not occur elsewhere, and it is to be connected with “all men.”

12. Instructing us that denying ungodliness and worldly desires, we should live soberly, and justly, and godly in this world,

The purpose of the Incarnation was to save us from our sins and to teach us the way to heaven.

That denying, etc. This phrase expresses the negative duties of the Christian life, while the following words, “we should live, etc.,” express the positive requirements of the same life. The words “soberly, justly, godly” embrace all our Christian obligations—to ourselves, to our neighbor, and to God.

13. Looking for the blessed hope and coming of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Christ Jesus,

The practice of the holy life taught us by our Saviour carries with it the right and privilege on our part of looking forward one day to a glorious realization of our hope, that is, of seeing the blessed object of our hope, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

Coming would be better translated “appearing,” and the absence of the article before it shows its close connection with “hope”; its Greek equivalent is found only in the Pastoral Letters and in 2 Thess 2:8, and it refers to our Lord’s Second Coming everywhere, except in 2 Tim 1:10, where it means His First Advent. Since, therefore, the word “appearing,” here as everywhere, is applied to our Lord and never to God the Father, and since there is only one preposition governing “great God” and “Saviour Jesus Christ,” it is next to certain that the Apostle in this verse is speaking only of our Lord, and not of God the Father and our Lord. That he should speak of our Lord as “the great God” is only to emphasize the glory of His coming. We have, therefore, in this verse an implied but solemn proof of the divinity of our Lord.

14. Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and might cleanse to himself a chosen people, zealous for good works.

Who gave himself, etc. See on Eph 5:2; 1 Tim 2:6.

Redeem, cleanse. These words express respectively the negative and positive aspects of the one process of sanctification.

From all iniquity. Literally, “from all lawlessness.”

A chosen people, i.e., a people who would be His own property or possession. This is the meaning of the Greek. The language here is from Psalm 130:8, Ex 19:5, Deut 6:6, 14:2, etc., where God’s choice and formation of Israel as His own people are in question.

WHAT THE CRETANS ARE TO DO, WHAT THEY ARE TO AVOID

A Summary of Titus 3:1-11~In this last section of his letter St. Paul gives Titus certain counsels which he is to set before all the faithful of Crete. They are to be obedient to authority, helpful to others, and considerate of outsiders, remembering their former sinful state out of which God’s pure mercy and grace delivered them, thus making them heirs of eternal life (ver. 1-7). Titus must insist that being a Christian carries with it the obligation of producing fruit in good works. Useless discussions are to be avoided, and those who persist in them are to be shunned (ver. 8-1 1).

4. But when the kindness and love for men of God our Saviour appeared,

Over against the malice and hatefulness of men (verse 3) St. Paul sets the kindness and love of God. We have revised the wording of the verse in accordance with the Greek, and the Vulgate should be likewise changed.

Concerning the malice and hatefulness of men see 1 Cor 6:9-11; Eph 2:1-3, 4:17-19, 5:8; Col 3:5-7; 1Pet 4:3.

God our Saviour is here applied to God the Father, as in 1 Tim 1:1. The goodness and love of the Eternal Father towards us have been manifested in the Incarnation of our Lord and in our justification.

5. Not by the works of justice, which we have done, but according to his mercy, he saved us by the laver of regeneration and renovation of the Holy Ghost;

Before describing the works of God’s love in our behalf the Apostle affirms their absolute gratuitousness, stating that our justification and salvation are not due to any meritorious works done by us, whether in the state of nature or under the Mosaic Law, but only and entirely to the pure mercy of God (cf. Rom 3:20 ff.; 2 Tim 1:9; Eph 2:8-10); and the medium or instrumental cause
employed by Almighty God to confer on us the graces of justification and salvation is “the laver of regeneration and renovation,” i.e., the Sacrament of Baptism.

Of the Holy Ghost, to whom is attributed the work of our spiritual regeneration and renovation, as being a work of love. See on 2 Tim 1:9.

6. Whom he hath poured forth upon us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour,

Since the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son by way of love, we attribute to Him works of love; but that our justification and salvation are in reality the work of the whole Divine Trinity is evident from this verse.

Whom means the Holy Ghost, of whom there has just been question; and “he” means God the Father, who is the subject of the whole sentence, God the Father in Baptism has abundantly poured into our souls the Holy Ghost, i.e., sanctifying grace and the other gifts of the Divine Spirit, which Jesus Christ by His sufferings and death has merited for us.

7. That, being justified by his grace, we might be heirs according to hope of life everlasting.

That indicates the final purpose of the justification we have received through the rich outpouring of the Holy Ghost upon our souls in Baptism, which is to make us “heirs of life everlasting.” This final and glorious issue of our spiritual lives we now possess in hope.

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Father Callan’s Commentary on Titus 2:11-15

Posted by Dim Bulb on December 30, 2012

TITUS’ TEACHING OF VARIOUS CLASSES OF PERSONS

A Summary of Titus 2:1-15~Here St. Paul tells Titus that the best way to correct the unwholesome teachings of the false guides in Crete will be to set before the people the simple positive doctrines of the Gospel as regards all classes, old and young of both sexes; and in doing all this Titus must show himself an example in doctrine and practice, so as to disarm adversaries. Even slaves and servants, by their obedience, honesty, and fidelity, may be an ornament in all respects to the doctrine of their God and Saviour (Titus 2:1-10). These teachings of the Gospel are entirely within the power of all to practise; for we have as helps the grace of God which has been manifested for the salvation of all mankind, and the glorious prospect of seeing hereafter the Saviour who gave Himself for us that He might free us from all sins and perfect us in every good work. Let Titus preach these things with all authority (Titus 2:11-15).

11. For the grace of God appeared bringing salvation to all men;

The Apostle now (ver. 11-14) gives reasons why Christians should observe the precepts he has been enjoining, namely, first, because the grace of God has appeared in the Incarnation of God’s only Son, “bringing salvation to all men” (ver. 11-12), and secondly, because by observing those precepts and living holy lives we prepare ourselves for the glorious coming of our Saviour (ver. 13-14).

The aorist “appeared” indicates the definite appearance of the Saviour at the time of His Incarnation. The adjective here translated “salvation” does not occur elsewhere, and it is to be connected with “all men.”

12. Instructing us that denying ungodliness and worldly desires, we should live soberly, and justly, and godly in this world,

The purpose of the Incarnation was to save us from our sins and to teach us the way to heaven.

That denying, etc. This phrase expresses the negative duties of the Christian life, while the following words, “we should live, etc.,” express the positive requirements of the same life. The words “soberly, justly, godly” embrace all our Christian obligations—to ourselves, to our neighbor, and to God.

13. Looking for the blessed hope and coming of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Christ Jesus,

The practice of the holy life taught us by our Saviour carries with it the right and privilege on our part of looking forward one day to a glorious realization of our hope, that is, of seeing the blessed object of our hope, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

Coming would be better translated “appearing,” and the absence of the article before it shows its close connection with “hope”; its Greek equivalent is found only in the Pastoral Letters and in 2 Thess 2:8, and it refers to our Lord’s Second Coming everywhere, except in 2 Tim 1:10, where it means His First Advent. Since, therefore, the word “appearing,” here as everywhere, is applied to our Lord and never to God the Father, and since there is only one preposition governing “great God” and “Saviour Jesus Christ,” it is next to certain that the Apostle in this verse is speaking only of our Lord, and not of God the Father and our Lord. That he should speak of our Lord as “the great God” is only to emphasize the glory of His coming. We have, therefore, in this verse an implied but solemn proof of the divinity of our Lord.

14. Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and might cleanse to himself a chosen people, zealous for good works.

Who gave himself, etc. See on Eph 5:2; 1 Tim 2:6.

Redeem, cleanse. These vv^ords express respectively the negative and positive aspects of the one process of sanctification.

From all iniquity. Literally, “from all lawlessness.”

A chosen people, i.e., a people who would be His own property or possession. This is the meaning of the Greek. The language here is from Psalm 130:8, Ex 19:5, Deut 6:6, 14:2, etc., where God’s choice and formation of Israel as His own people are in question.

15. These things speak, and exhort and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.

The foregoing exhortations and precepts Titus must preach and announce with full power and authority, and he must not hesitate to rebuke the wayward and disobedient, for he speaks not as a private person but as God’s minister and in God’s name. See on 1 Tim 4:11-12.

Here is what Father Callan wrote concerning 1 Tim 4:11-12:

1 Tim 4:11  These things command and teach:

These things, i.e., what he has been saying in verses 7-10, Timothy is to insist on with authority.

1 Tim 4:12. Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the faithful in word, in conversation, in charity, in faith, in chastity.

In verses 12-16 St. Paul gives Timothy advice regarding his personal behavior. Timothy was not forty years of age at this time, and had been associated with St. Paul some fifteen years. He was young in comparison with the Apostle, who was then sixty or more. Moreover, in ancient times a man was considered young until after forty. St. Paul himself was spoken of as a young man at the martyrdom of St. Stephen (Acts vii. 57), when he must have been thirty years old at least.

Young people in authority are apt to be criticised and even despised by older persons, unless shining virtues supply in them for the lack of age. Hence, the aged Apostle tells the youthful bishop to be an example to the faithful in his outward actions and manner of life, and also in the internal virtues that grace the soul and ennoble the character. The classic Greek word for “chastity” is found only here and in v. 2 below in the New Testament. It means chastity of life and purity of motive.

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Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Titus 3:4-7

Posted by Dim Bulb on December 17, 2012

This post includes the bishop’s paraphrasing (in purple text) of the verses he is commenting upon.

Tit 3:4  But when the goodness and kindness of God our Saviour appeared:

But when the goodness and singular love for men of God our Saviour shone forth (by the preaching of the Gospel),

Another motive to induce them to act compassionately, &c., is the example of God himself—” The kindness.” The Greek is, φιλανθρωπια, philanthropy. Some refer this to the Incarnation, but erroneously; for, there is question of God the Father, as he is distinguished from Jesus Christ (verse 6).

Tit 3:5  Not by the works of justice which we have done, but according to his mercy, he saved us, by the laver of regeneration and renovation of the Holy Ghost.

Not in consideration of the good works which we performed (for, there were no such works in existence), but out of pure gratuitous mercy, he saved us by baptism, wherein we are regenerated into sons of God and were made new men, through the grace of the Holy Ghost.

It was not in consideration of our just works that he saved us; for, before his
grace there were no good works, or “works of justice,” entitled to a reward; but it was out of his purely gratuitous mercy, he “saved us,” i.e., bestowed on us justification, which places us in the way of finally arriving at perfect eternal salvation, and is itself initial salvation. The means by which he has bestowed on us this justification is through the waters of baptism externally poured on us, and by the grace of the Holy Ghost, which is attached to the rite of baptism, interiorly giving us a new birth, a new spiritual essence, making us sons of God, perfectly renewing us, so that we become invested with the virtues of wisdom, faith, &c., opposed to the former vices to which we were slaves. The external instrumental cause of this renovation is baptism; the efficient invisible cause, which the external operates, is, the grace of the Holy Ghost. This passage manifestly shows that justification does not consist in the mere imputation of the justice of Christ; but that it is the inherent principle of this new life, so long as it perseveres.

Tit 3:6  Whom he hath poured forth upon us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour:

Whom God the Father has copiously and abundantly poured forth on us, through Jesus Christ our Saviour.

“Whom,” i.e., the Holy Ghost, “he hath poured forth upon us,” i.e., God the Father (verse 4) hath poured forth upon us abundantly, “through Jesus Christ our Saviour,” in the sacraments of baptism and confirmation, which, immediately after baptism, was given by the imposition of hands. The entire Trinity is referred to in this verse, distinctly contributing by an operation peculiar to each person to our new spiritual existence. The Eternal Father, the Principle of the Divinity itself, is the Father of the baptized, and the Principle of his divine existence; the Eternal Son is, with the Father, the Principle of the effusion of the Holy Ghost; and the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of the Father and Son, becomes the spirit of the baptized, his heart and soul, his supernatural and divine life.

Tit 3:7  That, being justified by his grace, we may be heirs according to hope of life everlasting.

So that, cleansed from sin and gifted with justice through his grace, we are constituted heirs of eternal life, which we have at present, only in the certain hope of one day obtaining it.

Justification implies the remission of sin and the infusion of justice by sanctifying grace, and this holy state constitutes us the rightful heirs of eternal life, which we do not yet actually possess, but which, like the youthful heir, during his minority, we hope one day to attain, and actually enjoy.

Posted in Bible, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, liturgy, Notes on the Lectionary, Notes on Titus, Quotes, Scripture | Tagged: , , , , , | 2 Comments »

Father Callan’s Commentary on Titus 2:1-8, 11-14

Posted by Dim Bulb on November 10, 2012

TITUS’ TEACHING OF VARIOUS CLASSES OF PERSONS

A Summary of Titus 2:1-15~Here St. Paul tells Titus that the best way to correct the unwholesome teachings of the false guides in Crete will be to set before the people the simple positive doctrines of the Gospel as regards all classes, old and young of both sexes; and in doing all this Titus must show himself an example in doctrine and practice, so as to disarm adversaries. Even slaves and servants, by their obedience, honesty, and fidelity, may be an ornament in all respects to the doctrine of their God and Saviour (Titus 2:1-10). These teachings of the Gospel are entirely within the power of all to practise; for we have as helps the grace of God which has been manifested for the salvation of all mankind, and the glorious prospect of seeing hereafter the Saviour who gave Himself for us that He might free us from all sins and perfect us in every good work. Let Titus preach these things with all authority (Titus 2:11-15).

1. But speak thou the things that become sound doctrine:

In contrast with the false teachers who were unsettling whole households by their fables and the commandments of men (Titus 1: 11, Titus 1:14), Titus is to instruct the faithful in the sound doctrine of the Gospel which has come from God.

2. That the aged men be sober, chaste, prudent, sound in faith, in love, in patience.

The Apostle now begins to indicate in the concrete what he means by the “sound doctrine” that Titus is to teach. And first, as regards older men, they should practise those virtues which in a special manner become their years and which age sometimes makes hard.

Aged men. Though the Greek word here used is different from that employed in 1 Tim 5:1, the meaning is the same.

3. The aged women, in like manner, in holy attire, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teaching well:

Aged women, a Greek word found only here in the Canonical Scriptures, but the same in meaning as the similar word in 1 Tim 5:2.

In holy attire. Better, “devout in demeanor,” referring to habits of mind and heart, as well as outward actions and appearance.

False accusers, i.e., slanderers.

Not given to much wine, as was too often the case among pagan women.

Teaching well, i.e., privately in families. See on 1 Tim 2:10-12.

1 Tim 2:10-12 reads: Having testimony for her good works, if she have brought up children, if she have received to harbor, if she have washed the saints’ feet, if she have ministered to them that suffer tribulation, if she have dihgently followed every good work. But the younger widows reject. For when they have grown wanton
against Christ, they will marry, Having damnation, because they have made void their first faith. Here is what Fr. Callan wrote on that passage:

Here are mentioned further qualifications required of those widows whose names were to be put on the church list. It was the dispositions manifested by these works rather than their actual performance that counted.

10. If she have brought up children, not necessarily her own.

If she have washed, etc. To wash the feet of guests was a necessary complement of hospitality among the Orientals (Matt 26:6; Luke 7:44), and an act of extreme humility (John 13:5-15.).

11. In verses 11 -15 St. Paul explains the reasons why certain widows should not be put on the church list. It is supposed that the women thus listed are enrolled for life in the service of the Church; and if they are younger than sixty, they will want to change and remarry “when they have grown wanton against Christ,” i.e., when they have grown tired of the life to which they have engaged themselves. The Greek word for “grown wanton” is found only here, and the figure is that of a young animal that has tired of its yoke and has become restive through fullness of vigor.

12. hose widows who had been enrolled on the church list had consecrated themselves to a work for Christ which was incompatible with remarriage; and to break the pledge they had thus freely made would bring upon them the guilt of being unfaithful to their first troth, which was to the Heavenly Bridegroom.

Damnation here means the guilt of unfaithfulness. The punishment of eternal damnation is not at all necessarily involved or implied in this instance; although, if there is unfaithfulness to Christ in one direction, it can easily spread to every direction and to all matters.

4. That they may teach the young women to be wise, to love their husbands, to love their children,

The Apostle now points out the object and motive of the good teaching on the part of older women spoken of at the end of the preceding verse; they are to exercise this good office on younger women, especially young married women, so as to instruct them in the duties peculiar to their state.

To love their husbands, etc. Quite literally, “to be husbandlovers, children-lovers.” The first Greek substantive is found only here in the Greek Bible, and the second only here in the New Testament. Love is the domestic source of strength and influence for married women; it is like a central heating plant which warms and cheers the whole person and extends its radiation to all around.

5. To be discreet, chaste, sober, having a care of the house, gentle, obedient to their husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.

Having a care of the house. It is disputed whether we should read here, quite literally, “keepers at home” or “workers at home.” The former is descriptive of the ideal wife among the Greeks, and hence very probable; but the latter has the support of the best MSS., and so it is to be preferred.

That the word of God, etc. The conduct and example of Christian wives would have great influence on pagan outsiders; hence they should give no occasion for adverse criticism.

6. Younger men, in like manner, exhort that they be sober.

Sober, i.e., sober in mind and conduct. The Greek word here literally means “wise”; it may also be translated “self-control.”

7. In all things shew thyself an example of good works, in teaching, in integrity, in gravity,

In all things. St. Jerome and some other authorities join these words to the end of the preceding verse. Titus, like every bishop, is to be an example to all (1 Tim 4:12; 1 Peter 5:3)—but especially to younger men—in blameless conduct and sound teaching.

8. The sound word that can not be blamed, that he who is in opposition may be afraid, having no evil to say of us.

The sound word, etc. Titus’ discourse or preaching must reflect the soundness of his doctrine.

That cannot be blamed is one word in Greek, and means “irreprehensible”; it is found elsewhere in the Bible only in 2 Macc 4:47.

That he, etc., i.e., that the adversary may be silenced. A simple presentation of the true doctrine will shame the enemy.

11. For the grace of God appeared bringing salvation to all men;

The Apostle now (ver. 11-14) gives reasons why Christians should observe the precepts he has been enjoining, namely, first, because the grace of God has appeared in the Incarnation of God’s only Son, “bringing salvation to all men” (ver. 11-12), and secondly, because by observing those precepts and living holy lives we prepare ourselves for the glorious coming of our Saviour (ver. 13-14).

The aorist “appeared” indicates the definite appearance of the Saviour at the time of His Incarnation. The adjective here translated “salvation” does not occur elsewhere, and it is to be connected with “all men.”

12. Instructing us that denying ungodliness and worldly desires, we should live soberly, and justly, and godly in this world,

The purpose of the Incarnation was to save us from our sins and to teach us the way to heaven.

That denying, etc. This phrase expresses the negative duties of the Christian life, while the following words, “we should live, etc.,” express the positive requirements of the same life. The words “soberly, justly, godly” embrace all our Christian obligations—to ourselves, to our neighbor, and to God.

13. Looking for the blessed hope and coming of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Christ Jesus,

The practice of the holy life taught us by our Saviour carries with it the right and privilege on our part of looking forward one day to a glorious realization of our hope, that is, of seeing the blessed object of our hope, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

Coming would be better translated “appearing,” and the absence of the article before it shows its close connection with “hope”; its Greek equivalent is found only in the Pastoral Letters and in 2 Thess 2:8, and it refers to our Lord’s Second Coming everywhere, except in 2 Tim 1:10, where it means His First Advent. Since, therefore, the word “appearing,” here as everywhere, is applied to our Lord and never to God the Father, and since there is only one preposition governing “great God” and “Saviour Jesus Christ,” it is next to certain that the Apostle in this verse is speaking only of our Lord, and not of God the Father and our Lord. That he should speak of our Lord as “the great God” is only to emphasize the glory of His coming. We have, therefore, in this verse an implied but solemn proof of the divinity of our Lord.

14. Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and might cleanse to himself a chosen people, zealous for good works.

Who gave himself, etc. See on Eph 5:2; 1 Tim 2:6.

Redeem, cleanse. These vv^ords express respectively the negative and positive aspects of the one process of sanctification.

From all iniquity. Literally, “from all lawlessness.”

A chosen people, i.e., a people who would be His own property or possession. This is the meaning of the Greek. The language here is from Psalm 130:8, Ex 19:5, Deut 6:6, 14:2, etc., where God’s choice and formation of Israel as His own people are in question.

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St John Chrysostom’s Commentary on Titus 2:11-15

Posted by Dim Bulb on December 19, 2011

The following post contains the saint’s teaching on Titus 2:11-15, it has been excerpted from a much longer instruction (on 2:11-3:6) which can be read in full here.

The Saint begins with a reference to verses 9-10 in order to introduce the subject of the current instruction. Those verses read: Exhort servants to be obedient to their masters: in all things pleasing, not gainsaying: Not defrauding, but in all things shewing good fidelity, that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.

Having demanded from servants so great virtue, for it is great virtue to adorn the doctrine of our God and Saviour in all things, and charged them to give no occasion of offense to their masters, even in common matters, he adds the just cause, why servants should be such: “For the grace of God our Saviour hath appeared to all men:.” Those who have God for their Teacher, may well be such as I have described, seeing their numberless sins have been forgiven to them. For you know that in addition to other considerations, this in no common degree awes and humbles the soul, that when it had innumerable sins to answer for, it received not punishment, but obtained pardon, and infinite favors. For if one, whose servant had committed many offenses, instead of scourging him with thongs, should grant him a pardon for all those, but should require an account of his future conduct, and bid him beware of falling into the same faults again, and should bestow high favors upon him, who do you think would not be overcome at hearing of such kindness? But do not think that grace stops at the pardon of former sins—it secures us against them in future, for this also is of grace. Since if He were never to punish those who still do amiss, this would not be so much grace, as encouragement to evil and wickedness.

For the grace of God our Saviour, he says,  hath appeared to all men: Instructing us, that, denying ungodliness and worldly desires, we should live soberly and justly and godly in this world,  Looking for the blessed hope and coming of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ. See, how together with the rewards he places the virtue. And this is of grace, to deliver us from worldly things, and to lead us to Heaven. He speaks here of two appearings; for there are two; the first of grace, the second of retribution and justice.

Instructing us, that, denying ungodliness, he says, and worldly desires. See here the foundation of all virtue. He has not said “avoiding,” but “denying.” Denying implies the greatest distance, the greatest hatred and aversion. With as much resolution and zeal as they turned from idols, with so much let them turn from vice itself, and worldly lusts. For these too are idols, that is, worldly lusts, and covetousness, and this he names idolatry. Whatever things are useful for the present life are worldly lusts, whatever things perish with the present life are worldly lusts. Let us then have nothing to do with these. Christ came, that we should deny ungodliness. Ungodliness relates to doctrines, worldly lusts to a wicked life.

We should live soberly and justly and godly in this world. Dost thou see, what I always affirm, that it is not sobriety only to abstain from fornication, but that we must be free from other passions. So then he who loves wealth is not sober. For as the fornicator loves women, so the other loves money, and even more inordinately, for he is not impelled by so strong a passion. And he is certainly a more powerless charioteer who cannot manage a gentle horse, than he who cannot restrain a wild and unruly one. What then? says he, is the love of wealth weaker than the love of women? This is manifest from many reasons. In the first place, lust springs from the necessity of nature, and what arises from this necessity must be difficult to restrain, since it is implanted in our nature. Secondly, because the ancients had no regard for wealth, but for women they had great regard, in respect of their chastity. And no one blamed him who cohabited with his wife according to law, even to old age, but all blamed him who hoarded money. And many of the Heathen philosophers despised money, but none of them were indifferent to women, so that this passion is more imperious than the other. But since we are addressing the Church, let us not take our examples from the Heathens, but from the Scriptures. This then the blessed Paul places almost in the rank of a command. “Having food and raiment, let us be therewith content.” (1 Tim 6:8). But concerning women he says, “Defraud ye not one the other, except it be with consent”—and “come together again.” (1 Cor 7:5). And you see him often laying down rules for a lawful intercourse, and he permits the enjoyment of this desire, and allows of a second marriage, and bestows much consideration upon the matter, and never punishes on account of it. But he everywhere condemns him that is fond of money. Concerning wealth also Christ often commanded that we should avoid the corruption of it, but He says nothing about abstaining from a wife. For hear what He says concerning money; “Whosoever forsaketh not all that he hath” (Luke 14:33); but he nowhere says, “Whosoever forsaketh not his wife”; for he knew how imperious that passion is. And the blessed Paul says, “Marriage is honorable in all, and the bed undefiled” (Heb 13:4); but he has nowhere said that the care of riches is honorable, but the reverse. Thus he says to Timothy, “They that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts.” (1 Tim 6:9). He says not, they that will be covetous, but, they that will be rich.

And that you may learn from the common, notions the true state of this matter, it must be set before you generally. If a man were once for all deprived of money, he would no longer be tormented with the desire of it, for nothing so much causes the desire of wealth, as the possession of it. But it is not so with respect to lust, but many who have been made eunuchs have not been freed from the flame that burned within them, for the desire resides in other organs, being seated inwardly in our nature. To what purpose then is this said? Because the covetous is more intemperate than the fornicator, inasmuch as the former gives way to a weaker passion. Indeed it proceeds less from passion than from baseness of mind. But lust is natural, so that if a man does not approach a woman, nature performs her part and operation. But there is nothing of this sort in the case of avarice).

We should live soberly and justly and godly in this world. And what is this hope? what the reward of our labors?

Looking for the blessed hope and coming. For nothing is more blessed and more desirable than that appearing. Words are not able to represent it, the blessings thereof surpass our understanding. 

Looking for the blessed hope and coming of the glory of the great God and Saviour Jesus Christ. Where are those who say that the Son is inferior to the Father?  The great God and Saviour, he say,  He who saved us when we were enemies. What will He not do then when He has us approved?

The great God. When he says great with respect to God, he says it not comparatively but absolutely, after Whom no one is great, since it is relative. For if it is relative, He is great by comparison, not great by nature. But now He is incomparably great.

Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity and might cleanse to himself a people acceptable. “Acceptable,” that is, selected from the rest, and having nothing in common with them.

A pursuer of good works. Dost thou see that our part is necessary, not merely works, but “zealous”; we should with all alacrity, with a becoming earnestness, go forward in virtue. For when we were weighed down with evils, and incurably diseased, it was of His lovingkindness that we were delivered. But what follows after this is our part as well as His.

Tit 2:14  Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity and might cleanse to himself a people acceptable, a pursuer of good works.

A people acceptable. That is, selected from the rest, and having nothing in common with them.

A pursuer of good works. Dost thou see that our part is necessary, not merely working good works, but pursuing them; we should with all alacrity, with a becoming earnestness, go forward in virtue. For when we were weighed down with evils, and incurably diseased, it was of His loving-kindness that we were delivered. But what follows after this is our part as well as His.

Tit 2:15  These things speak and exhort and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.

These things speak and exhort. Do you see how he charges Timothy? “Reprove, rebuke, exhort” (see 2 Tim 4:2) But here, “Rebuke with all authority.” For the manners of this people were more stubborn (see Titus 1:12-13), wherefore he orders them to be rebuked more roughly, and with all authority. For there are some sins, which ought to be prevented by command. We may with persuasion advise men to despise riches, to be meek, and the like. But the adulterer, the fornicator, the defrauder, ought to be brought to a better course by command. And those who are addicted to augury and divination, and the like, should be corrected “with all authority.” Observe how he would have him insist on these things with independence, and with entire freedom.

Posted in Bible, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, fathers of the church, liturgy, Notes on Titus, Quotes, Scripture, SERMONS, St John Chrysostom | Tagged: , , , , , | 2 Comments »

FOURTH UPDATE: Resources for the Christmas Masses (Biblical and Homiletic)

Posted by Dim Bulb on December 19, 2011

This post will stay at the top of this blog until Christmas Evening and may be updated again. If this happens I’ll change the title of the post to read SECOND UPDATE. At the end of this post you will find a number of Christmas sermons by Church Fathers and others.  To see all of this weeks posts, please go here.

VIGIL MASS:
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Note: The Gospel reading for the Vigil Mass is Matt 1:1-25, but there is also a shorter reading, Matt 1:18-25. The reading has already been used in the liturgy (4th Sunday of Advent)  so don’t let the title’s of the post fool you.

Readings.

Bishop MacEvily’s Commentary on Acts 13:16-17, 22-25.

Maldonado’s Commentary on Matt 1:1-17. Part 1 of the longer reading, part 2 below.

Maldonado’s Commentary on Matt 1:18-25. Part 2 of longer reading, or used as shorter reading.

Cornelius a Lapide’s commentary on Matt 1:18-25.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Matt 1:18-25.

Word Sunday: Translation and commentary

Lector Notes. Brief historical and theological background.

UPDATE~Navarre Bible Commentary:

icon for podpress Fr. Guilbeau’s Homily – Christmas Vigil: Play Now | Play in Popup | Download

MASS AT MIDNIGHT
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Readings.

4th UPDATE: A Sermon on Isaiah 9:6. By Father Augustine Wirth, O.S.B., a famed preacher of his day (died 1901). Some sermons from Church Fathers and saints can be found at the end of this post.

4th UPDATE: Isaiah 9:6~The Birth of Jesus Christ. Another sermon on Isaiah 9:6 by Fr. Augustine Wirth.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 96 (95).

Father Callan’s Commentary on Titus 2:11-14.

2nd UPDATE: St John Chrysostom’s Commentary on Titus 2:11-14.

Aquinas’s Catena Aurea on Luke 2:1-14.

2nd UPDATE: Father Callan’s Commentary on Luke 2:1-14.

3rd UPDATE: Pope St Gregory the Great’s Sermon on Luke 2:1-14. More sermons from saints and fathers of the Church at end of post.

4th UPDATE: Sermon on Luke 2:10-11. By Fr. Augustine Wirth, O.S.B. A famed preacher of his day (died 1901).

Sunday Gospel Scripture Study. Excellent. Audio/video study on Luke 2:1-18.  May take 10 or more seconds for video to activate.

Word Sunday: Translation and commentary

Lector Notes. Brief historical and theological background.

UPDATE~Navarre Bible Commentary:

Scripture in Depth.

Bible Study. St Charles Borromeo Parish.

Religious Joy. Sermon by St John Henry Newman (on Luke 2:10-11).

icon for podpress Fr. Jones’s Homily – Midnight Mass: Play Now | Play in Popup | Download

MASS AT DAWN
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Readings.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 97 (96).

3rd UPDATE: St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 97 (96).

Father Callan’s Commentary on Titus 3:4-7.

2nd UPDATE: St John Chrysostom’s Commentary on Titus 3:4-7.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 2:15-20.

2nd UPDATE: Father Callan’s Commentary on Luke 2:15-20.

4th UPDATE: God’s Gift to Man-Man’s Gift to God. A Sermon on Luke 2:15 by Fr. Augustine Wirth, O.S.B., a famed preacher of his day (died 1901).

Word Sunday: Translation and commentary

Bible Study. St Charles Borromeo Parish.

UPDATE~Navarre Bible Commentary:

MASS DURING THE DAY
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Readings.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 98 (97).

3rd UPDATE: St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 98 (97).

Father Boylan’s Commentary on Hebrews 1:1-6.

2nd UPDATE: Father Callan’s Commentary on Hebrews 1:1-6.

2nd UPDATE: St John Chrysostom on Hebrews 1:1-6.

Father Callan’s Commentary on the Prologue of John’s Gospel (1:1-18).

Fathers Nolan and Brown’s Commentary on the Prologue of John’s Gospel (1:1-18).

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on the Prologue of John’s Gospel (1:1-18).

St Augustine’s Commentary on John 1:1-5.

St Augustine’s Commentary on John 1:6-14.

UPDATE~Navarre Bible Commentary:

Christ Hidden From the World. Sermon by St J.H. Newman (on Jn 1:5).

The Incarnation. Sermon by St John Henry Newman (on John 1:14).

4th UPDATE: A Sermon on John 1:14. By Fr. Augustine Wirth, O.S.B., a famed preacher of his day (died 1901).

icon for podpress Fr. Guilbeau’s Homily – Christmas Day: Play Now | Play in Popup | Download

Today’s Good News. Brief reflection on the Gospel.

A Lectio Divina reading of the Gospel. Prayer, meditation, reflection on the text in the Carmelite tradition.

Word Sunday: Translation and comentary

Bible Study. St Charles Borromeo Parish.

SERMONS
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Christmas Sermon by St. Isaac the Syrian This brief sermon calls us to not only celebrate Christmas/Nativity, but to remember the ethical implications of the feast. This is a classic.

Nativity Sermon I by Pope St. Leo

Nativity Sermon II by Pope St. Leo

Nativity Sermon III by Pope St. Leo

Nativity Sermon IV by Pope St. Leo

Nativity Sermon VI by Pope St. Leo

Nativity Sermon VII by Pope St. Leo

Nativity Sermon VIII by Pope St. Leo

A Christmas Sermon by St. Gregory of Nazianzus

4th UPDATE: The Spiritual Christmas Tree. A sermon on Ps 1:3 by Fr. Augustine Wirth, O.S.B.

4th UPDATE: The Moral of the Incarnation. A sermon on Luke 2:10-11 by Fr. Augustine Wirth, O.S.B.

icon for podpress Fr. Keitz’s Homily – Christmas Day: Play Now | Play in Popup | Download

In The Beginning Was The Word. Audio homily by Fr. Robert Barron.

Posted in Audio/Video Lectures, Bible, Catechetical Resources, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, fathers of the church, John Paul II Catechesis, liturgy, Meditations, Notes on Acts of Apostles, Notes on Hebrews, Notes on Luke's Gospel, Notes on the Gospel of John, Notes on the Gospel of Matthew, Notes on the Lectionary, NOTES ON THE PSALMS, Notes on Titus, PAPAL COMMENTARY ON THE PSALMS, Quotes, Scripture, St Thomas Aquinas | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | 12 Comments »

This Weeks Posts: Sunday Jan 23-Saturday Jan 29

Posted by Dim Bulb on January 29, 2011

Some posts are scheduled in advance and will not be available until the time indicated. Further posts (e.g., commentary on next Sunday’s readings, etc) will be added to any upcoming day.
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SUNDAY, JAN 23
THIRD SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME

Readings.

Last Weeks Posts: Jan 16-22.

Resources For Sunday Mass, Jan 23. This is a weekly feature on this blog, next Sunday’s Mass resources will be posted on Wednesday.
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MONDAY JAN 24
MEMORIAL OF ST FRANCIS DE SALES, BISHOP AND DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH

Readings.

Father Callan on Today’s First Reading (Heb 9:15, 24-28). 12:03 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 3:22-30). 12:05 AM EST.

Some Online Works By and About St Francis de Sales. 12:10 AM EST.

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TUESDAY JAN 25
FEAST OF THE CONVERSION OF ST PAUL, APOSTLE

Readings.

Father Callan on Today’s First Reading (Acts 22:3-16). 12:05 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 16:15-18)12:10 AM EST.

Free Online Resources for the Feast of St Paul’s Conversion. 12:15 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Matt 5:1-12 for Sunday Mass, Jan 30.

Cornelius a Lapide on 1 Corinthians 1:26-31 for Sunday Mass, Jan 30.

Bernardin de Piconio (Picquigny) on 1 Corinthians 1:26-31 for Sunday Mass Jan 30. This is actually a commentary on verses 18-31 but it is not terribly long.

Father Callan on 1 Corinthians 1:26-31 for Sunday Mass, Jan 30.

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WEDNESDAY JAN 26
MEMORIAL OF SAINTS TIMOTHY AND TITUS, BISHOPS

Readings. Note that the first reading has two choices.

Father Callan on Today’s First Reading (2 Tim 1:1-8). 12:10 AM EST.

Bishop MacEvily on the Alternate First Reading (Titus 1:1-5). 12:10 AM EST.

Father Callan on the Alternate First Reading (Titus 1:1-5). 12:10 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 4:1-20). 12:10 AM EST.

Resources For Sunday Mass, Jan 30. Ordinary and Extraordinary Forms.

Pope John Paul II on Psalm 146 for Sunday Mass, Jan 30.

Bernardin de Piconio on Romans 13:8-10 for Sunday Mass, Jan 30 (Extraordinary Form).

Father Callan on Romans 13:8-10 for Sunday Mass, Jan 30 (Extraordinary Form).

Bishop MacEvily on Romans 13:8-10 for Sunday Mass, Jan 30 (Extraordinary Form).

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Matt 8:23-27 for Sunday Mass, Jan 30 (Extraordinary Form).

Cornelius a Lapide on Matt 8:23-27 for Sunday Mass, Jan 30 (Extraordinary Form).

The Mystical Ship: Aquinas’ Homily Notes on Matt 8:23 for Sunday Mass, Jan 30 (Extraordinary Form).

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THURSDAY JAN 27
THIRD WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Readings.

Father Callan on Today’s First Reading (Heb 10:19-25). 12:05 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 4:21-25). 12:10 AM EST.
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FRIDAY JAN 28
MEMORIAL OF ST THOMAS AQUINAS, PRIEST AND DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH

Readings.

Father Callan on Today’s First Reading (Heb 10:32-39). 12:05 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Lecture on Heb 10:32-39.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 4:26-34). 12:10 AM EST.

The English Translations of Aquinas’ Major Works Online. Most of the titles are in Latin but the actual texts are in English.

An English Translation of Aquinas’ Commentary on the Psalms. Scroll down.

Thomas Aquinas. Online book. This is a famous study of his thought by Father Martin D’Arcy.

Medieval Philosophy Illustrated From the System of Thomas Aquinas. Online book. A very good introduction to his thought.

The Bread of Life: St Thomas Aquinas on the Adorable Sacrament of the Altar. Online book.

The Life and Labors of St Thomas of Aquino. Online book by Archbishop Roger Vaughn.
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SATURDAY JAN 29
THIRD WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Readings.

Father Callan on Today’s First Reading (Heb 11:1-2, 8-19). 12:05 AM EST.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Today’s Gospel (Mark 4:35-41). 12:10 AM EST.

Posted in Audio/Video Lectures, Bible, Catechetical Resources, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, fathers of the church, Latin Mass Notes, liturgy, Notes on 2 Tim, Notes on Acts of Apostles, Notes on Hebrews, Notes on Mark, Notes on the Lectionary, Notes on Titus, Quotes, Scripture, St Francis de Sales, St Paul's life, St Thomas Aquinas | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments »

Jan 26: Father Callan on Today’s First Alternate Reading (Titus 1:1-5) for the Memorial of Sts Timothy and Titus

Posted by Dim Bulb on January 26, 2011

Note: This is one of two reading oppositions for today. You can see commentary on the other possible first reading (2 Tim 1:1-8) here.  In the current post I’ve included Father Callan’s brief summaries of verse 1-4 and 5-16 to help provide the broader context of today’s reading. The latter summary will follow the commentary on verse 4. I’ve posted another commentary on Titus 1:1-5 here.

INSCRIPTION AND GREETING: A Summary of Titus 1:1-4. The introduction to this letter is somewhat longer than usual. St. Paul asserts his divine authority to preach the faith to God’s chosen ones, that they may sanctify themselves and thus become worthy of the promise of eternal life which was given long ago and has now been revealed through the Gospel. Paul is the preacher of this heavenly message according to the command of God, and he writes to Titus as a son in Christ, since they both share that common faith and the resultant peace and grace which God bestows in Christ Jesus.

1. Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of the elect of God and the acknowledging of the truth which is according to godliness.

Servant of God, a phrase found only here in St. Paul’s letters, and therefore a mark of the genuineness of the Epistle since no forger would be likely to use a strange expression in the very first line of his letter.

An apostle, i.e., a commissioned agent. The Apostle proclaims his authority and commission on account of the false teachers in Crete.

According to the faith. This points out the purpose of the Apostle’s commission, which was to preach the faith “of the elect of God,” i.e., the faith common to all Christians, which all mankind are called to share, so that all may come to a knowledge of the truth “of the Gospel,” which truth “is according to godliness,” i.e., it teaches us how to worship God as we should and live according to His will.

2. Unto the hope of life everlasting, which God, who lieth not, promised before the times of the world,

Unto the hope, etc. The purpose of the Apostle’s preaching and of the Gospel truth which he proclaims is to stimulate the hope of life eternal which the ever-truthful God “promised before the times of the world,” i.e., from all eternity (see 2 Tim 1:9). This last phrase is understood by some expositors to refer to the promise made in Old Testament times to the Patriarchs and Prophets, but the first explanation is thought to be more probable.

3. But hath in due times manifested his word in preaching, which is committed to me according to the commandment of God our Saviour:

The construction here is difficult, but the meaning is clear enough. The promise to give eternal life to the elect, which God had decreed from eternity, was made manifest in due time in the preaching of the Gospel message, which Paul had been commissioned to preach by God Himself.
God our Saviour. See on 1 Tim 1:1.

4. To Titus my beloved son, according to the common faith, grace and peace from God the Father, and from Christ Jesus our Saviour.

Titus. See Introduction to this Epistle, No. I.

The common faith, which was the bond of their spiritual relationship.

Christ Jesus our Saviour. In the preceding verse we had “God our Saviour,” which shows that our Lord is true God.

DUTIES DEVOLVING UPON TITUS: A Summary of Titus 1:5-16. St. Paul has left Titus in Crete to set things in order, and to this end one of the first things that should engage the attention of the young bishop will be the appointment of proper church officials, priests and bishops of high moral and spiritual character, whose doctrine is above question and whose manner of living is a
perfect reflection of that doctrine (ver, 5-9). This is at all times necessary, but especially so in conditions such as confront Titus in Crete, where there are abroad certain false teachers, the worst of them Jewish, who for the sake of money are circulating ideas and discussing questions that are unsettling the faith and demoralizing the lives of Christians. The Cretans are only too much disposed to vice and disorder, and hence Titus must sharply rebuke those false and misleading guides, and recall the faithful to soundness of doctrine
and Tightness of conduct. Those false teachers are defiled from within, and they deny by their lives the God whom they profess with their lips (ver. 10-16).

5. For this cause I left thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and shouldest ordain priests in every city, as I also appointed thee:

For this cause, etc. St. Paul refers to a time when he and Titus visited the Island of Crete together, which must have been between the first and second Roman imprisonments. We cannot identify this visit with the passing glimpse of Crete which is related in Acts 27:7-13, when Paul as a prisoner was on his way to Rome from Caesarea; for at that time it seems the Apostle did not land at all.

The things that are wanting, i.e., the reforms that St. Paul was unable to complete before he was called away.

Priests. See on i Tim. iii. i.

As I also appointed thee, i.e., as St. Paul had instructed him to do when leaving him there.

Posted in Bible, Catholic, Christ, Devotional Resources, liturgy, Notes on the Lectionary, Notes on Titus, Quotes, Scripture | Tagged: , , , | 2 Comments »

 
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