The Divine Lamp

The unfolding of thy words gives light; it imparts understanding to the simple…Make thy face shine upon thy servant, and teach me thy statutes

Archive for the ‘Notes on Proverbs’ Category

Haydock Bible Commentary on Proverbs 9:1-6

Posted by Dim Bulb on July 31, 2015

Text in red are my additions.

1 WISDOM hath built herself a house, she hath hewn her out seven pillars.

House. The sacred humanity, (S. Ignat. S. Aug. de Civ. Dei. xvii. 20.) or the Church. S. Greg. Mor. xxxiii. 15.—Here we may receive all instruction, the seven sacraments, and the gifts of the Holy Ghost. Pleasure had mentioned here attractions: now those of true wisdom are set before us. C.—God sent his pastors at all times, to invite people to embrace the latter. They are all included in the number seven, both before and under the law, as well as in the gospel, where S. Paul styles SS. Peter, James, and John, pillars. Gal. 2. This is the literal sense, on which the mystical is grounded, and both are intended by the Holy Ghost, intimating that the uncreated wisdom took flesh of the blessed Virgin, prepared the table of bread and wine, as Priest according to the order of Melchisedec, and chose the weak of this world to confound the strong, as S. Aug. explain this passage. Sup. and q. 51. W.

2 She hath slain her victims, mingled her wine, and set forth her table.

Victims. Moses ordered the blood to be poured out at the door of the tabernacle, and a part given to the priests, after which the rest might be taken away. The like was probably done at Jerusalem. Lev. 17:4. These victims are contrasted with those of pleasure. c. 7:14.—Mingled. It was not customary for any but barbarians and the gods to take pure wine. Some mixed two, others three, five, or even twenty parts of water. But the scholiast of Aristophanes says, the best method was to have three parts water, and two of wine. Mercury complains that his wine was half water. Arist. Plut. v. Sun. i.—The Fathers often apply this text to the feast of Jesus Christ in the blessed Eucharist. C.—S. Cyprian (ep. iii.) citeth the whole passage of Christ’s sacrifice in the forms of bread and wine. W.

3 She hath sent her maids to invite to the tower, and to the walls of the city:

Maids. Sept. “servant men,” the pastors of the church, inviting all to piety in so public a manner, that none can plead ignorance. S. Greg. C.—To invite. Prot. “she crieth upon the highest places of the city.” H.—Christ enjoins his apostles to preach on the roofs. Matt. 10:37.

4 Whosoever is a little one, let him come to me. And to the unwise she said:

Little one. Simple, but not inconstant, like children. 1 Cor. 14:20. Pleasure addresses the same, (c. 7:7) but for their destruction. C.

5 Come, eat my bread, and drink the wine which I have mingled for you. ‎

Bread was, along with water, the stay and staff of life in ancient Israel (Isaiah 3:1). An abundance of wine signified divine blessing (Prov 3:9-10, Deut 7:13). Bread and wine supplied enough to dine on adequately (Judges 19:19; cf. Lam 2:12).  It is not hard to see how the image came to symbolize spiritual sustenance (Isa 55:1-3). In the present context it seems to symbolize the benefits of wisdom (see Sir 15:3).Of special note is the benefit of “life” and “prudence” in verse 6.

Note how “Lady Wisdom” speaks of “My” bread and wine. This stands in marked contrast to “Lady Folly” who, like Lady Wisdom, also invites little ones to eat and drink (compare 4-5 with 16-17). But it is water (not wine!) that is stolen, and bread acquired surreptitiously (see verses 13-18). 

6 Forsake childishness, and live, and walk by the ways of prudence.

The meal Lady Wisdom offers is here related to prudence, protection against Lady Folly. It gives life, unlike Folly’s banquet that leads to death (verse 18).

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My Notes on Proverbs 21:1-6, 10-13

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 23, 2012

Prov 21:1  As the divisions of waters, so the heart of the king is in the hand of the Lord: whithersoever he will, he shall turn it.

Divisions of the water. The Hebrew more properly refers to man made irrigation channels (in the plural). Modern translations such as the RNAB and the RSV employ the singular “stream” and thereby miss the significance of the comparison. Just as a hydro-technician can control water via ditches, channels aqueducts, etc., God has control over his earthly representatives, but this is not by compulsion and, therefore, not a rejection of free will:

Isaiah 10~5 Ah, Assyria, the rod of my anger, the staff of my fury! 6 Against a godless nation I send him, and against the people of my wrath I command him, to take spoil and seize plunder, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. 7 But he does not so intend, and his mind does not so think; but it is in his mind to destroy, and to cut off nations not a few; 8 for he says: “Are not my commanders all kings? 9 Is not Calno like Carchemish? Is not Hamath like Arpad? Is not Samaria like Damascus? 10 As my hand has reached to the kingdoms of the idols whose graven images were greater than those of Jerusalem and Samaria, 11 shall I not do to Jerusalem and her idols as I have done to Samaria and her images?” 12 When the Lord has finished all his work on Mount Zion and on Jerusalem he will punish the arrogant boasting of the king of Assyria and his haughty pride. 13 For he says: “By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom, for I have understanding; I have removed the boundaries of peoples, and have plundered their treasures; like a bull I have brought down those who sat on thrones. 14 My hand has found like a nest the wealth of the peoples; and as men gather eggs that have been forsaken so I have gathered all the earth; and there was none that moved a wing, or opened the mouth, or chirped.” 15 Shall the axe vaunt itself over him who hews with it, or the saw magnify itself against him who wields it? As if a rod should wield him who lifts it, or as if a staff should lift him who is not wood! 16 Therefore the Lord, the LORD of hosts, will send wasting sickness among his stout warriors, and under his glory a burning will be kindled, like the burning of fire (Isa 10:5-16 RSV).

Aquinas: God Who is more powerful than the human will, can move the will of man, according to Pr 21,1: “The heart of the king is in the hand of the Lord; whithersoever He will He shall turn it.” But if this were by compulsion, it would no longer be by an act of the will, nor would the will itself be moved, but something else against the will (Summa Theologica, I-II Q. 6. art. 4).

Prov 21:2  Every way of a man seemeth right to himself: but the Lord weigheth the hearts.

It is the wise king who humbly allows the wisdom of God to direct his actions (a wisdom all mankind is called to). The way of a fool is right in his own eyes: but he that is wise hearkeneth unto counsels (Prov 12:15). The leaders of the people in Jesus’ day showed themselves unwise: you are they who justify yourselves before men, but God knoweth your hearts. For that which is high to men is an abomination before God (Luke 15:16). Such an attitude ends in judgement:  There is a way which seemeth just to a man: but the ends thereof lead to death (Prov 14:12).

Prov 21:3  To do mercy and judgment, pleaseth the Lord more than victims.

Victims. Animal sacrifices. As has often been noted, passages such as this are not a condemnation of sacrifice, rather, they are about priority. Sacrifice is intimately connected with God’s mercy towards humans.We see this in the Prophet Joel. Because of the people’s sins the land has been devastated, so much so that there is nothing left for sacrificial offerings (Joel 1:2-10, Joel 1:13; Joel 1:16). Sacrifice and libation is cut off from the house of the Lord so, therefore, the people are called upon to repent (Joel 1:13-20). God holds out the possibility that he will relent: Now, therefore, saith the Lord. Be converted to me with all your heart, in fasting, and in weeping, and mourning. And rend your hearts, and not your garments and turn to the Lord your God: for he is gracious and merciful, patient and rich in mercy, and ready to repent of the evil. Who knoweth but he will return, and forgive, and leave a blessing behind him, sacrifice and libation to the Lord your God? (Joel 2:12-14). Here we see that the opportunity and ability to offer sacrifice is a grace and a mercy, but if we are unwilling to bestow mercy and graciousness on others, what are we doing but affronting the grace and mercy of God who is ready to bestow it on us?

In 1 John we read: My little children, these things I write to you, that you may not sin. But if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the just. And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for those of the whole world (1 John 2:1-2). But how can one lay claim to this grace if one does not obey God and his command to love? (see 1 John 2:3-11).

Prov 21:4  Haughtiness of the eyes is the enlarging of the heart: the lamp of the wicked is sin.

This verse is variously translated, and many modern translations and commentators propose several different emendations.

Haughtiness. The lifting up of the eyes is often an image of haughtiness, pride, insolence (Isa 2:11; Isa 5:15; Isa 37:23; Prov 30:13; Ps 18:27).

Enlarging of the heart. Hebrew:  ורחב = “a roomy heart.” It can be translated as “arrogant heart” (Ps 101:5). The basic meaning seems to be: Haughtiness of the eyes is (the result of) the enlarging of the heart.

The lamp of the wicked is sin. Some draw a connection with Luke 11:33-36. Other see an allusion to Proverbs 20:27 which, unfortunately, is variously translated. Others understand the lamp of the wicked to be the haughty eyes and enlarged heart. In Proverbs 24:20 we read: For evil men have no hope of things to come, and the lamp of the wicked shall be put out. Lamp here seems to me to be synonymous with life, thus: the lamp (i.e., life) of the wicked is sin.

Prov 21:5  The thoughts of the industrious always bring forth abundance: but every sluggard is always in want.

the industrious are always praised in the Bible, provided their industry is not sinful (see Prov 10:4; Prov 14:23). The above translation follows the Greek and contrasts the protected, careful, well planned thoughts of the industrious with that of a sluggard.The sluggard is often condemned in Proverbs (e.g., Prov 6:6; Prov 10:4; Prov 12:27; Prov 13:4; Prob 20:4; Prov 21:25).

In the Hebrew text the comparison is not with a lazy man, rather, it is with a hasty man: The plans of the diligent lead surely to abundance, but every one who is hasty comes only to want (RSV). The desire and impatience to get rich quickly, or be successful early, usually leads to ruin due to a lack of wisdom, the absence of forethought and planning (Prov 19:2; Prov 21:5). Those who want a quick and easy salvation with out the nasty necessity of daily crosses will come to ruin (Luke 14:27-33).

Prov 21:6  He that gathereth treasures by a lying tongue, is vain and foolish, and shall stumble upon the snares of death.

See Prov 10:2; Prov 13:11; Sirach 40:13-14. A person’s desire to get rich quick, or be successful at a young age, can often lead to acquiring  ill-gotten gains. The importance of truthfulness cannot be underestimated:

The Catechism of the Catholic Church~2464 The eighth commandment forbids misrepresenting the truth in our relations with others. This moral prescription flows from the vocation of the holy people to bear witness to their God who is the truth and wills the truth. Offenses against the truth express by word or deed a refusal to commit oneself to moral uprightness: they are fundamental infidelities to God and, in this sense, they undermine the foundations of the covenant.

2465 The Old Testament attests that God is the source of all truth. His Word is truth. His Law is truth. His “faithfulness endures to all generations.”[Ps 119:90] Since God is “true,” the members of his people are called to live in the truth.[Rom 3:4; cf. 119:30]

2466 In Jesus Christ, the whole of God’s truth has been made manifest. “Full of grace and truth,” he came as the “light of the world,” he is the Truth.[Jn 1:14; Jn 8:12; cf. Jn 14:5] “Whoever believes in me may not remain in darkness.”[Jn 12:46] The disciple of Jesus continues in his word so as to know “the truth [that] will make you free” and that sanctifies.[Jn 8:32; cf. Jn 17:17] To follow Jesus is to live in “the Spirit of truth,” whom the Father sends in his name and who leads “into all the truth.”[Jn 16:13] To his disciples Jesus teaches the unconditional love of truth: “Let what you say be simply ‘Yes or No.’”[Matt 5:37]

2467 Man tends by nature toward the truth. He is obliged to honor and bear witness to it: “It is in accordance with their dignity that all men, because they are persons . . . are both impelled by their nature and bound by a moral obligation to seek the truth, especially religious truth. They are also bound to adhere to the truth once they come to know it and direct their whole lives in accordance with the demands of truth.”[Dignitatis Humanae 2 § 2]

Stumble upon the snares of death. To seek ill-gotten gain is to entrap yourself in death.

Pro 21:10  The soul of the wicked desireth evil, he will not have pity on his neighbor.

The soul of the wicked desireth evil. Soul in Hebrew is  נפשׁ = breath, life, self. His very life is bound up with evil desire, as if he could not live without it.

He will not have pity on his neighbor. Literally, Not gracious in his eyes is his neighbor.  His predilection is for his own evil desires, not the needs of his neighbors, companions, or associates.

The fact that in our liturgical reading this verse follows verse 6 with its reference to lying tongue is interesting. See Psalm 52 which is about the deceiver who relies on his tongue and his ill-gotten goods

Pro 21:11  When a pestilent man is punished, the little one will be wiser: and if he follow the wise, he will receive knowledge.

Pestilent man. One who infects others like a plague. Other translations speak of an arrogant, scoffing, or scorning man. Here we see the positive value of punishment. Even if it proves no corrective to the man himself, it give others a warning, leading to the possibility they will begin to follow the teaching of the wise

Pro 21:12  The just considereth seriously the house of the wicked, that he may withdraw the wicked from evil.

Perhaps the idea is that the just man takes account of a wicked man’s household (wife, children, servants) and the ill-effects that man has upon these, and seeks to bring the man from his wicked way on their account.

The RSV reads: The righteous observes the house of the wicked; the wicked are cast down to ruin.

Pro 21:13  He that stoppeth his ear against the cry of the poor, shall also cry himself, and shall not be heard.

The fool’s rule: God will treat you as miserably as you have treated others. For judgment is without mercy to one who has shown no mercy; yet mercy triumphs over judgment (James 2:13 RSV).

Excerpt from Pope St Leo’s Sermon on the Collections~But, perhaps there are some rich people, who, although they are not wont to help the Church’s poor by bounteous gifts, yet keep other commands of God, and among their many meritorious acts of faith and uprightness think they will be pardoned for the lack of this one virtue. But this is so important that, though the rest exist without it, they can be of no avail. For although a man be full of faith, and chaste, and sober, and adorned with other still greater decorations, yet if he is not merciful, he cannot deserve mercy: for the Lord says, “blessed are the merciful, for God shall have mercy upon them” (Matt 5:7).  And when the Son of Man comes in His Majesty and is seated on His glorious throne, and all nations being gathered together, division is made between the good and the bad, for what shall they be praised who stand upon the fight except for works of benevolence and deeds of love which Jesus Christ shall reckon as done to Himself? For He who has made man’s nature His own, has separated Himself in nothing from man’s humility. And what objection shall be made to those on the left except for their neglect of love, their inhuman harshness, their refusal of mercy to the poor? as if those on the right had no other virtues those on the left no other faults. But at the great and final day of judgment large-hearted liberality and ungodly meanness will be counted of such importance as to outweigh all other virtues and all other shortcomings, so that for the one men shall gain entrance into the Kingdom, for the other they shall be sent into eternal fire.

Let no one therefore, dearly beloved, flatter himself on any merits of a good life, if works of charity be wanting in him, and let him not trust in the purity of his body, if he be not cleansed by the purification of almsgiving. For “almsgiving wipes out sin” (Sirach 3:30),  kills death, and extinguishes the punishment of perpetual fire. But he who has not been fruitful therein, shall have no indulgence from the great Re-compenser, as Solomon says, “He that closeth his ears lest he should hear the weak, shall himself call upon the Lord, and there shall be none to hear him” (Prov 21:13). And hence Tobias also, while instructing his son in the precepts of godliness, says, “Give alms of thy substance, and turn not thy face from any poor man: so shall it come to pass that the face of God shall not be turned from thee.”  This virtue makes all virtues profitable; for by its presence it gives life to that very faith, by which “the just lives” (Hab 2:4), and which is said to be “dead without works” (James 2:26), because as the reason for works consists in faith, so the strength of faith consists in works. “While we have time therefore,” as the Apostle says, “let us do that which is good to all men, and especially to them that are of the household of faith” (Gal 2:9-10). “But let us not be weary in doing good; for in His own time we shall reap” (Gal 2:910).And so the present life is the time for sowing, and the day of retribution is the time of harvest, when every one shall reap the fruit of his seed according to the amount of his sowing. And no one shall be disappointed in the produce of that harvesting, because it is the heart’s intentions rather than the sums expended that will be reckoned up. And little sums from little means shall produce as much as great sums from great means. And therefore, dearly beloved, let us carry out this Apostolic institution. And as the first collection will be next Sunday, let all prepare themselves to give willingly, that every one according to his ability may join in this most sacred offering. Your very alms and those who shall be aided by your gifts shall intercede for you, that you may be always ready for every good work in Christ Jesus our Lord, Who lives and reigns for ages without end. Amen.

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My Notes on Proverbs 3:27-33

Posted by Dim Bulb on September 22, 2012

Background~Scholars and translators are not in agreement concerning the structure of this chapter. C.H. Toy, in the Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Proverbs,  divides the chapter up into three major parts on the basis of the repeated words “my son”, giving the following structure:

A. Prov 3:1-10;
B. Prov 3:11-20;
C. Prov 3:21-35.

The Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture gives a different division:

A. Blessings for obeying and trusting in God: (Prov 3:1-10).
B. Wisdom’s excellence (Prov 3:11-20).
C. The security wisdom gives (Prov 3:21-26).
D. Maxims on kindness (Prov 3:27-35).

R.B.Y. Scott, in the Anchor Bible Commentary on Proverbs and Ecclesiastes divides it up into four parts as well:

A. A discourse dealing with rewards for living and acting rightly (Prov 3:1-12).
B. A poem concerning the gifts Wisdom brings to those who possess her (Prov 3:13-18).
C. A poem on Wisdom’s origin (Prov 3:19-20).
D. Obligations of the wise man and the reward the fulfillment of them brings (Prov 3:21-35).

However one decides to divvy up the chapter, it is obvious that verses 27-33 are concerned with how we are to act towards our neighbor; doing them good (Prov 3:27-30), and avoiding their evil gains and actions (Prov 3:31), thereby enjoying the friendship and blessing of God (Prov 3:32-33).

Verse 27 is variously translated:

The Douay-Rheims Version~Do not withhold him from doing good, who is able: if thou art able, do good thyself also. Do not hinder acts of goodness and righteousness in other men, rather, do them yourself also, if it is in your power.

The Revised Standard Version~Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to do it.

The New American Bible’s translation is very similar in meaning~Refuse no one the good on which he has a claim when it is in your power to do it for him.

The poor and needy are due our charity (RSV), they have a claim on it (NAB).

St John Chrysostom:  I have often said and I say now also: the greatness of the charity is not shown by the measure of what is given, but by the disposition of the giver. You know the case of the widow. It is well continually to bring this example forward, that not even the poor man may despair of himself, when he looks on her who threw in the two mites. Some contributed even hair in the fitting up of the temple, and not even these were rejected. (Exodus 35:23). But if when they had gold, they had brought hair, they [would have been] accursed: but if, having this only, they brought it, they were accepted. For this cause Cain also was blamed, not because he offered worthless things, but because they were the most worthless he had. “Cursed is the deceitful man that hath in his flock a male, and making a vow offereth in sacrifice that which is feeble to the Lord” (Mal 1:14). He did not speak absolutey, but, “he that hath” (he says) and spares it (to give a blemished sacrifice instead). If then a man have nothing, he is freed from blame, or rather he has a reward. For what is of less value than two farthings, or more worthless than hair? What than a pint of meal? But nevertheless these were approved equally with the calves and the gold. For “a man is accepted according to that which he hath, not according to that which he hath not.” (2 Cor 8:12). And, it says, “If thou art able, do good.” (Prov 3:27).

Wherefore, I entreat you, let us readily empty out what we have for the poor. Even if it be little we shall receive the same reward with them who have cast the most; or rather, more than those who cast in ten thousand talents. If we do these things we shall obtain the unspeakable treasures of God; if we not only hear, but practice also, if we do not praise [charity], but also show [it] by our deeds. Which may we all attain, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom to the Father together with the Holy Ghost, be glory, might, honor, now and for ever and world without end. Amen.

But the injunction not to withhold good is not limited to just alms. We are required to do good to all, rich or poor; to parents, children, friends, employers, employees~ Cursed be he that honoureth not his father and mother: and all the people shall say: Amen (Deut 27:16). But if any man have not care of his own and especially of those of his house, he hath denied the faith and is worse than an infidel (1 Tim 5:8).  If we owe a debt, the good requires that we pay it. If there is a right demand for justice we must bestow it if we have the power, or, at the very least, we must call for its bestowal by those who have such power (judges, politicians, police, etc). If there is a need for mercy, we must  show it; if the need is kindness, we must give it.

Romans 13:7~Render therefore to all men their dues. Tribute, to whom tribute is due: custom, to whom custom: fear, to whom fear: honour, to whom honour.

Galatians 6:10~Therefore, whilst we have time, let us work good to all men, but especially to those who are of the household of the faith.

Prov 3:28  Say not to thy friend: Go, and come again: and to morrow I will give to thee: when thou canst give at present.

The Greek Septuagint here adds a saying from Prov 27:1 so that it reads: Say not to thy friend: Go, and come again: and to morrow I will give to thee: when thou canst give at present, for thou knowest not what the day to come may bring forth.

Once again the poor come to mind: The wages of him that hath been hired by thee shall not abide with thee until the morning (Lev 19:13). Thou shalt not refuse the pay of the needy, and the poor, whether he be thy brother, or a stranger that dwelleth with thee in the land, and is within thy gates: but thou shalt pay him the price of his labour the same day, before the going down of the sun, because he is poor, and with it maintaineth his life: lest he cry against thee to the Lord, and it be reputed to thee for a sin (Deut 24:14-15). Behold the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which by fraud has been kept back by you, crieth: and the cry of them hath entered into the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth (James 5:4). Yet, once again, it is neither merely alms-giving or the needy that are in view, hence the generic nature of the the injunction.

Having dealt with sins of omission, the teacher now turns to warn concerning sins of commission.

Pro 3:29  Practise not evil against thy friend, when he hath confidence in thee.

This is an abomination in the eyes of the Lord: And let none of you imagine evil in your hearts against his friend: and love not a false oath: for all these are the things that I hate, saith the Lord (Zechariah 8:17). Let not a man devise evil in his heart against his brother.  But they would not hearken, and they turned away the shoulder to depart: and they stopped their ears, not to hear. And they made their heart as the adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the Lord of hosts sent in his spirit by the hand of the former prophets: so a great indignation came from Lord of hosts. (see Zechariah 7:10-12). As he is guilty that shooteth arrows, and lances unto death. So is the man that hurteth his friend deceitfully (Prov 26:18-19).

Pro 3:30  Strive not against a man without cause, when he hath done thee no evil.

Generally understood as a rejection of instigating quarrels and litigation without just cause.  As he that taketh a dog by the ears, so is he that passeth by in anger, and meddleth with another man’s quarrel (Prov 26:17). If it be possible, as much as is in you, have peace with all men (Rom 12:18).

Pro 3:31  Envy not the unjust man, and do not follow his ways.

As the old Protestant commentator A. Barnes wrote, this injunction is a protest against the tendency to worship success, to think the lot of the “man of violence” enviable, and therefore to be chosen.

Envy is best left to the devil. By the envy of the devil, death came into the world: and they follow him that are of his side (Wis 2:24-25). Envying the wicked is futile, for their end will be to wither like grass (Ps 37:1-2). Those who are zealous for the Lord, rather than envious of the sinner, will have a future, and their hope will not be cut off (Prov 23:17-18).

Pro 3:32  For every mocker is an abomination to the Lord, and his communication is with the simple.

The NAB and RSV translations differ considerably from the above.

For is a conjunctive introducing the reason why one should not envy the unjust, here understood as a mocker. The Hebrew word לוּז (lûz = perverse) used here is similar to the word לוּץ (lûts = scorner, mocker) used in verse 34 and this may account for the translation of mocker here.

His communication. The Hebrew סודו׃ denotes familiar conversation.

The simple. The basic meaning of the Hebrew word ישׁרים means straight, right, true. The same is the case with the Greek δικαιοις used in the LXX. Both these words contrast nicely with the Hebrew word לוּז (lûz = perverse) which was translated mocker. The basic meaning of lûz is to turn, and by implication to twist, distort, etc. To pervert something (truth, words, virtue, etc.,) is to take that which is straight, true, etc., and twist it.

Pro 3:33  Want is from the Lord in the house of the wicked: but the habitations of the just shall be blessed.

Want. The Greek and Hebrew both read, a curse is from the Lord in the house of the wicked. In the OT God’s curse is often associated with a lack (i.e., a want) or withdrawal of material things, while his blessing is there abundance. Compare Deut 28:2-6 with Deut 28:15-19.

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